“Real-time rendering of plant leaves” by Wang, Wang, Dorsey, Yang, Guo, et al. …

  • ©Lifeng Wang, Wenle Wang, Julie Dorsey, Xu Yang, Baining Guo, and Heung-Yeung Shum




    Real-time rendering of plant leaves



    This paper presents a framework for the real-time rendering of plant leaves with global illumination effects. Realistic rendering of leaves requires a sophisticated appearance model and accurate lighting computation. For leaf appearance we introduce a parametric model that describes leaves in terms of spatially-variant BRDFs and BTDFs. These BRDFs and BTDFs, incorporating analysis of subsurface scattering inside leaf tissues and rough surface scattering on leaf surfaces, can be measured from real leaves. More importantly, this description is compact and can be loaded into graphics hardware for fast run-time shading calculations, which are essential for achieving high frame rates. For lighting computation, we present an algorithm that extends the Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) approach to all-frequency lighting for leaves. In particular, we handle the combined illumination effects due to low-frequency environment light and high-frequency sunlight. This is done by decomposing the local incident radiance of sunlight into direct and indirect components. The direct component, which contains most of the high frequencies, is not pre-computed with spherical harmonics as in PRT; instead it is evaluated on-the-fly using pre-computed light-visibility convolution data. We demonstrate our framework by the rendering of a variety of leaves and assemblies thereof.


    1. Ashikhmin, M., Premoze, S., and Shirley, P. 2000. A microfacet-based BRDF generator. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’00, 65–74. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Assarsson, A., and Akenine-Móller, T. 2003. A geometry-based soft shadow volume algorithm using graphics hardware. ACM Transaction on Graphics 22(3), 511–520. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Baranoski, G. V. G., and Rokne, J. G. 1997. An algorithmic reflectance and transmittance model for plant tissue. Computer Graphics Forum 16, 3, 141–150.Google ScholarCross Ref
    4. Baranoski, G., and Rokne, J. 2001. Efficiently simulating scattering of light by leaves. The Visual Computer 17(8), 491–505.Google ScholarCross Ref
    5. Baranoski, G. V. G., and Rokne, J. 2002. Light Interaction with Plants. SIGGRAPH ’02 Course Notes.Google Scholar
    6. Beckmann, P., and Spizzichino, A. 1963. The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces. MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
    7. Bloomenthal, J. 1985. Modeling the mighty maple. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’85 19, 305–311. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Chan, E., and Durand, F. 2003. Rendering fake soft shadows with smoothies. Proc. of the Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2003. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Cook, R. L., and Torrance, K. E. 1982. A reflectance model for computer graphics. ACM Transactions on Graphics 1, 1 (Jan.), 7–24. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. de Reffye, P., Edelin, C., Francon, J., Jaeger, M., and Puech, C. 1988. Plant models faithful to botanical structure and development. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’88 22(4), 151–158. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Demko. S., Hadges, L., and Naylor, B. 1985. Construction of fractal objects with iterated function system. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’85, 271–278. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Deussen, O., Hanrahan, P. M., Lintermann, B., Mech, R., Pharr, M., and Prusinkiewicz, P. 1998. Realistic modeling and rendering of plant ecosystems. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’98, 275–286. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Franzke, O., and Deussen, O. 2003. Accurate graphical representation of plant leaves. In Plant growth modelling and its applications, Springer-Verlag, B.-G. Hu and M. Jaeger, Eds.Google Scholar
    14. Fuhrer, M., Jensen, H. W., and Prusinkiewicz, P. 2004. Modeling hairy plants. In Proc. of Pacific Graphics ’04. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Ganapol, B., Johnson, L., Hammer, P., Hlavka, C., and Peterson. D. 1998. LEAFMOD: A new within-leaf radiative transfer model. Remote Sensing of Environment 63, 182 — 193.Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. Gardner, A., Tchou, C., Hawkins, T., and Debevec, P. 2003. Linear light source reflectometry. ACM Transactions on Graphics 22, 3 (July), 749–758. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Govaerts, Y., Verstraete, S. J. M., and Ustin, S. 1996. Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dycotyledon leaf. Applied Optics 35, 33, 6585 — 6598.Google ScholarCross Ref
    18. Hanrahan, P., and Krueger, W. 1993. Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’93, 165–174. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Jacquemoud, S., and Ustin, S. 2001. Leaf optical properties: A state of the art. In Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, 223–232.Google Scholar
    20. Kajiya, J. T. 1985. Anisotropic reflection models. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’85, vol. 19, 15–21. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Kautz, J., Sloan, P.-P., and Snyder, J. 2002. Fast, arbitrary BRDF shading for low-frequency lighting using spherical harmonics. Eurographics Rendering Workshop. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Ma, Q., Nishimura, A., Phu, P., and Kuga, Y. 1990. Transmission, reflection and depolarization of an optical wave for a single leaf. IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 28, 5 (september), 865 — 872.Google Scholar
    23. Max, N. 1996. Hierarchical rendering of trees from precomputed multilayer z-buffers. In Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1996, 165–174. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Meyer, A., Neyret, F., and Poulin, P. 2001. Interactive rendering of trees with shading and shadows. Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Ng, R., Ramamoorthi, R., and Hanrahan, P. 2003. All-frequency shadows using non-linear wavelet lighting approximation. ACM Transaction on Graphics (July), 376–381. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Ng, R., Ramamoorthi, R., and Hanrahan, P. 2004. Triple product wavelet integrals for all-frequency relighting. ACM Transaction on Graphics (August), 477–487. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Oren, M., and Nayar, S. K. 1994. Generalization of Lambert’s reflectance model. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’94, 239–246. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Poulin, P., and Fournier, A. 1990. A model for anisotropic reflection. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’90, vol. 24, 273–282. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Prusinkiewicz, P., Lindenmayer, A., and Hanan, J. 1988. Development models of herbaceous plants for computer imagery purposes. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’88, 141–150. Google ScholarDigital Library
    30. Prusinkiewicz, P., Muendermann, L., Karwowski, R., and Lane, B. 2001. The use of positional information in the modeling of plants. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’01, 289–300. Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Qin, X., Nakamae, E., Tadamura, K., and Nagai, Y. 2003. Fast photo-realistic rendering of trees in daylight. Computer Graphics Forum 22, 3, 243–252.Google ScholarCross Ref
    32. Reche, A., Martin, I., and Drettakis, G. 2004. Volumetric reconstruction and interactive rendering of trees from photographs. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 3 (July). Google ScholarDigital Library
    33. Siewert, C. E. 1978. The fn method for solving radiative-transfer problems in plane geometry. Astrophysics and Space Science 58, 131–137.Google ScholarCross Ref
    34. Sloan, P.-P., Kautz, J., and Snyder, J. 2002. Precomputed radiance transfer for real-time rendering in dynamic, low-frequency lighting environments. ACM Transaction on Graphics, 527–536. Google ScholarDigital Library
    35. Sloan, P.-P., Hall, J., Hart, J., and Snyder, J. 2003. Clustered principal components for precomputed radiance transfer. ACM Transaction on Graphics (July), 382–391. Google ScholarDigital Library
    36. Soler, C., and Sillion, F. 1998. Fast calculation of soft shadow textures using convolution. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’98, 321–332. Google ScholarDigital Library
    37. Stogryn, A. 1967. Electromagnetic scattering from rough, finitely conducting surface. Radio Sciences 2 (New Series), 4, 415–428.Google Scholar
    38. Torrance, K. E., and Sparrow, E. M. 1967. Theory for off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces. Journal of the Optical Society of America 57, 9 (Sept.), 1105–1114.Google ScholarCross Ref
    39. Vogelmann, T. C. 1993. Plant tissue optics. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 44, 231–251.Google ScholarCross Ref
    40. Ward, G. J. 1992. Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’92, 265–272. Google ScholarDigital Library
    41. Weber, J., and Penn, J. 1995. Creation and rendering of realistic trees. Proceeding of SIGGRAPH ’95, 119–128. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: