“LDI tree: a hierarchical representation for image-based rendering” by Chang, Bishop and Lastra

  • ©Chun-Fa Chang, Gary Bishop, and Anselmo Lastra




    LDI tree: a hierarchical representation for image-based rendering



    Using multiple reference images in 3D image warping has been a challenging problem. Recently, the Layered Depth Image (LDI) was proposed by Shade et al. to merge multiple reference images under a single center of projection, while maintaining the simplicity of warping a single reference image. However it does not consider the issue of sampling rate. We present the LDI tree, which combines a hierarchical space partitioning scheme with the concept of the LDI. It preserves the sampling rates of the reference images by adaptively selecting an LDI in the LDI tree for each pixel. While rendering from the LDI tree, we only have to traverse the LDI tree to the levels that are comparable to the sampling rate of the output image. We also present a progressive refinement feature and a “gap filling” algorithm implemented by pre-filtering the LDI tree. We show that the amount of memory required has the same order of growth as the 2D reference images. This also bounds the complexity of rendering time to be less than directly rendering from all reference images.


    1. C. H. Chien, Y. B. Sim and J. K. Aggarwal. Generation of Volume/Surface Octree from Range Data. The Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 254-60, June 1988.
    2. C. I. Connolly. Cumulative Generation of Octree Models from Range Data. Proceedings, Int’l Conf. Robotics, pages 25-32, March 1984.
    3. Brian Curless and Marc Levoy. A Volumetric Method for Building Complex Models from Range Images. In Proceed-ings of SIGGRAPH 1996, pages 303-312.
    4. Steven J. Gortler, Radek Grzeszczuk, Richard Szeliski and Michael F. Cohen. The Lumigraph. In Proceedings of SIG-GRAPH 1996, pages 43-54.
    5. Craig Kolb. Rayshade. http://www-graphics.stanford.edu/~cek/rayshade/.
    6. David Laur and Pat Hanrahan. Hierarchical Splatting: A Progressive Refinement Algorithm for Volume Rendering. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH 91 Conference Proceedings), volume 25, pages 285-288.
    7. Marc Levoy and Pat Hanrahan. Light Field Rendering. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1996, pages 31-42.
    8. A. Li and G. Crebbin. Octree Encoding of Objects from Range Images. Pattern Recognition, 27(5):727-739, May 1994.
    9. Dani Lischinski and Ari Rappoport. Image-Based Rendering for Non-Diffuse Synthetic Scenes. Rendering Techniques ’98 (Proc. 9th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering).
    10. Robert W. Marcato Jr. Optimizing an Inverse Warper. Master’s of Engineering Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998.
    11. William R. Mark, Leonard McMillan and Gary Bishop. Post-Rendering 3D Warping. Proceedings of the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pages 7-16.
    12. Nelson Max. Hierarchical Rendering of Trees from Precomputed Multi-Layer Z-Buffers. Rendering Techniques ’96 (Proc. 7th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering), pages 165-174.
    13. Leonard McMillan. A List-Priority Rendering Algorithm for Redisplaying Projected Surfaces. Technical Report 95-005, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1995.
    14. Leonard McMillan and Gary Bishop. Plenoptic Modeling. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1995, pages 39-46.
    15. Leonard McMillan. An Image-Based Approach to Three- Dimensional Computer Graphics. Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical Report 97-013, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1997.
    16. Nathan O’Brien. Rayshade – Il Redentore. http://www.fbe.unsw.edu.au/exhibits/rayshade/church/
    17. Gernot Schaufler and Wolfgang St~rzlinger. A Three- Dimensional Image Cache for Virtual Reality. In Proceedings of Eurographics ’96, pages 227-236. August 1996.
    18. Jonathan Shade, Dani Lischinski, David H. Salesin, Tony DeRose and John Snyder. Hierarchical Image Caching for Accelerated Walkthrough of Complex Environments. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1996, pages 75-82.
    19. Jonathan Shade, Steven Gortler, Li-wei He and Richard Szeliski. Layered Depth Images. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1998, pages 231-242.
    20. Lee Westover. SPLATTING: A Parallel, Feed-Forward Volume Rendering Algorithm. Ph.D. Dissertation. Technical Report 91-029, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1991.

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: