“Fabricating reflectors for displaying multiple images” by Sakurai, Dobashi, Iwasaki and Nishita

  • ©Kaisei Sakurai, Yoshinori Dobashi, Kei Iwasaki, and Tomoyuki Nishita



Entry Number: 158


    Fabricating reflectors for displaying multiple images

Session/Category Title: Fabrication for Color and Motion




    A great deal of attention has been devoted to the fabrication of reflectors that can display different color images when viewed from different directions not only in industry but also for the arts. Although such reflectors have previously been successfully fabricated, the number of images displayed has been limited to two or they suffer from ghosting artifacts where mixed images appear. Furthermore, the previous methods need special hardware and/or materials to fabricate the reflectors. Thus, those techniques are not suitable for printing reflectors on everyday personal objects made of different materials, such as name cards, letter sheets, envelopes, and plastic cases. To overcome these limitations, we propose a method for fabricating reflectors using a standard ultraviolet printer (UV printer). UV printer can render a specified 2D color pattern on an arbitrary material and by overprinting the printed pattern can be raised, that is, the printed pattern becomes a microstructure having color and height. We propose using these micro structures to formulate a method for designing spatially varying reflections that can display different target images when viewed from different directions. The microstructure is calculated by minimizing an objective function that measures the differences between the intensities of the light reflected from the reflector and that of the target image. We show several fabricated reflectors to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method.


    1. Marc Alexa and Wojciech Matusik. 2010. Reliefs As Images. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Papers (SIGGRAPH ’10). ACM, ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 60, 7 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Ilya Baran, Philipp Keller, Derek Bradley, Stelian Coros, Wojciech Jarosz, Derek Nowrouzezahrai, and Markus Gross. 2012. Manufacturing Layered Attenuators for Multiple Prescribed Shadow Images. Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of Eurographics 2012) 31, 2 (May 2012), 603–610. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Peter N. Belhumeur, David J. Kriegman, and Alan L. Yuille. 1999. The Bas-Relief Ambiguity. International Journal of Computer Vision 35, 1 (1999), 33–44. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Amit Bermano, Ilya Baran, Marc Alexa, and Wojciech Matusk. 2012. Shadowpix: Multiple Images from Self Shadowing. Comput. Graph. Forum (Proc. EUROGRAPHICS 2012) 31, 2 (2012), 593–602. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Matthew Brand. 2011. Specular holography. Appl. Opt. 50, 25 (Sep 2011), 5042–5046.Google ScholarCross Ref
    6. Daniel Glasner, Todd Zickler, and Anat Levin. 2014. A Reflectance Display. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 4, Article 61 (July 2014), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. David E. Goldberg. 1989. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Lerning. Addison-Wesley Professional. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Roger David Hersch and Sylvain Chosson. 2004. Band Moiré Images. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 3 (Aug. 2004), 239–247.Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Yanxiang Lan, Yue Dong, Fabio Pellacini, and Xin Tong. 2013. Bi-scale Appearance Fabrication. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 4, Article 145 (July 2013), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Douglas Lanman, Matthew Hirsch, Yunhee Kim, and Ramesh Raskar. 2010. Content-adaptive Parallax Barriers: Optimizing Dual-layer 3D Displays Using Low-rank Light Field Factorization. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 6, Article 163 (Dec. 2010), 10 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Douglas Lanman, Gordon Wetzstein, Matthew Hirsch, Wolfgang Heidrich, and Ramesh Raskar. 2011. Polarization Fields: Dynamic Light Field Display Using Multi-layer LCDs. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 6, Article 186 (Dec. 2011), 10 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Anat Levin, Daniel Glasner, Ying Xiong, Frédo Durand, William Freeman, Wojciech Matusik, and Todd Zickler. 2013. Fabricating BRDFs at High Spatial Resolution Using Wave Optics. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 4, Article 144 (July 2013), 14 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Wojciech Matusik, Boris Ajdin, Jinwei Gu, Jason Lawrence, Hendrik P. A. Lensch, Fabio Pellacini, and Szymon Rusinkiewicz. 2009. Printing Spatially-varying Reflectance. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 5, Article 128 (Dec. 2009), 9 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Niloy J. Mitra and Mark Pauly. 2009. Shadow Art. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 5, Article 156 (Dec. 2009), 7 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Marios Papas, Thomas Houit, Derek Nowrouzezahrai, Markus Gross, and Wojciech Jarosz. 2012. The Magic Lens: Refractive Steganography. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6, Article 186 (Nov. 2012), 10 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Alberto Pascual-Montano, J. M. Carazo, Kieko Kochi, and Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui. 2006. Nonsmooth Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (nsNMF). IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 28, 3 (March 2006), 403–415. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Ken Perlin, Salvatore Paxia, and Joel S. Kollin. 2000. An Auto stereoscopic Display. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH ’00). ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, NY, USA, 319–326. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Petar Pjanic and Roger D. Hersch. 2015a. Color Changing Effects with Anisotropic Halftone Prints on Metal. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 6, Article 167 (Oct. 2015), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Petar Pjanic and Roger D. Hersch. 2015b. Color Imaging and Pattern Hiding on a Metallic Substrate. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 4, Article 130 (July 2015), 10 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Christian Regg, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, Wojciech Matusik, and Markus Gross. 2010. Computational Highlight Holography. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 6, Article 170 (Dec. 2010), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Kaisei Sakurai, Dobashi Yoshinori, and Nishita Tomoyuki. 2017. A Method for Fabricating Reflectors Presenting Multiple Colored Images by Raised Linear Stripes. In Proceedings of the The 5th IIEEJ International Workshop on Image Electronics and Visual Computing. The Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan, The Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan, Da Nang, Vietnam, 6.Google Scholar
    22. Christian Schüller, Daniele Panozzo, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2014. Appearance-mimicking Surfaces. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 6, Article 216 (Nov. 2014), 10 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Xavier Snelgrove, Thiago Pereira, Wojciech Matusik, and Marc Alexa. 2013. Parallax Walls: Light fields from occlusion on height fields. Computers & Graphics 37, 8 (2013), 974 — 982. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Wenhao Song, Alexander Belyaev, and Hans-Peter Seidel. 2007. Automatic Generation of Bas-reliefs from 3D Shapes. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications 2007 (SMI ’07). IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 211–214. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Daniel Sýkora, Ladislav Kavan, Martin Čadík, Ondřej Jamriška, Alec Jacobson, Brian Whited, Maryann Simmons, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2014. Ink-and-ray: Bas-relief Meshes for Adding Global Illumination Effects to Hand-drawn Characters. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 2, Article 16 (April 2014), 15 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Gordon Wetzstein, Douglas Lanman, Wolfgang Heidrich, and Ramesh Raskar. 2011. Layered 3D: Tomographic Image Synthesis for Attenuation-based Light Field and High Dynamic Range Displays. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 4, Article 95 (July 2011), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Gordon Wetzstein, Douglas Lanman, Matthew Hirsch, and Ramesh Raskar. 2012. Tensor Displays: Compressive Light Field Synthesis Using Multilayer Displays with Directional Backlighting. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 80 (July 2012), 11 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Tim Weyrich, Jia Deng, Connelly Barnes, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, and Adam Finkelstein. 2007. Digital Bas-relief from 3D Scenes. ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 3, Article 32 (July 2007), 32:1–32:7 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Yonghao Yue, Kei Iwasaki, Bing-Yu Chen, Yoshinori Dobashi, and Tomoyuki Nishita. 2012. Pixel Art with Refracted Light by Rearrangeable Sticks. Computer Graphics Forum 31, 2pt3 (2012), 575–582. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication: