“Fabricating microgeometry for custom surface reflectance” by Weyrich, Peers, Matusik and Rusinkiewicz

  • ©Tim Weyrich, Pieter Peers, Wojciech Matusik, and Szymon Rusinkiewicz




    Fabricating microgeometry for custom surface reflectance



    We propose a system for manufacturing physical surfaces that, in aggregate, exhibit a desired surface appearance. Our system begins with a user specification of a BRDF, or simply a highlight shape, and infers the required distribution of surface slopes. We sample this distribution, optimize for a maximally-continuous and valley-minimizing height field, and finally mill the surface using a computer-controlled machine tool. We demonstrate a variety of surfaces, ranging from reproductions of measured BRDFs to materials with unconventional highlights.


    1. Ashikhmin, M., Premože, S., and Shirley, P. 2000. A Microfacet-Based BRDF Generator. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH, 65–74. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Blinn, J. 1977. Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH, 192–198. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Cho, T. S., Butman, M., Avidan, S., and Freeman, W. T. 2008. The Patch Transform and its Applications to Image Editing. In Proc. IEEE CVPR, 1–8.Google Scholar
    4. Cignoni, P., Montani, C., and Scopigno, R. 1997. Automatic Generation of Bas- and High-Reliefs. Journal of Graphics Tools, Vol. 2, No. 3, 15–28. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Colbert, M., Pattanaik, S., and Křivánek, J. 2006. BRDF-Shop: An Artistic Tool for Creating Physically Correct BRDFs. IEEE CG&A, Vol. 26, No. 1, 30–36. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Cook, R. L., and Torrance, K. E. 1982. A Reflectance Model for Computer Graphics. ACM Trans. Graph., Vol. 1, No. 1, 307–316. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Han, C., Sun, B., Ramamoorthi, R., and Grinspun, E. 2007. Frequency Domain Normal Map Filtering. ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH), Vol. 26, No. 3. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Heidrich, W., and Seidel, H.-P. 1998. View-Independent Environment Maps. In Proc. Graphics Hardware, 39–45. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Kerber, J., Belyaev, A., and Seidel, H.-P. 2007. Feature Preserving Depth Compression of Range Images. In Proc. of the 23rd Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, Comenius University, Slovakia, 110–114.Google Scholar
    10. Lucy, L. B. 1974. An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions. Astron. Journal, Vol. 79, No. 6, 745.Google Scholar
    11. Nicodemus, F. E., Richmond, J. C., Hsia, J. J., Ginsberg, I. W., and Limperis, T. 1977. Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance. National Bureau of Standards, U. S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
    12. Patow, G., and Pueyo, X. 2005. A Survey of Inverse Surface Design From Light Transport Behavior Specification. Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Dec.), 773–789.Google ScholarCross Ref
    13. Patow, G., Pueyo, X., and Vinacua, A. 2007. User-Guided Inverse Reflector Design. Computers & Graphics, Vol. 31, No. 3, 501–515. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Richardson, W. H. 1972. Bayesian-based iterative method of image restoration. JOSA, Vol. 62, No. 1, 55–59.Google ScholarCross Ref
    15. Rusinkiewicz, S. 1998. A New Change of Variables for Efficient BRDF Representation. In Proc. EGRW, 11–22.Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. Secord, A. 2002. Weighted Voronoi Stippling. In Proc. NPAR, 37–43. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Song, W., Belyaev, A., and Seidel, H.-P. 2007. Automatic Generation of Bas-Reliefs from 3D Shapes. In Proc. SMI, 21–214. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Sourin, A. 2001. Functionally Based Virtual Computer Art. In Proc. I3D, 77–84. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Torrance, K. E., and Sparrow, E. M. 1967. Theory for Off-Specular Reflection from Roughened Surfaces. JOSA, Vol. 57, No. 9, 1104–1114.Google ScholarCross Ref
    20. Westin, S., Arvo, J., and Torrance, K. 1992. Predicting Reflectance Functions from Complex Surfaces. In Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 255–264. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Weyrich, T., Deng, J., Barnes, C., Rusinkiewicz, S., and Finkelstein, A. 2007. Digital Bas-Relief from 3D Scenes. ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH), Vol. 26, No. 3. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: