“Three dimensional computer graphics for craniofacial surgical planning and evaluation” by Vannier, Marsh and Warren

  • ©Michael Vannier, Jeffrey L. Marsh, and James O. Warren




    Three dimensional computer graphics for craniofacial surgical planning and evaluation



    The understanding of complex craniofacial deformities has been aided by high resolution computed tomography. Nonetheless, the planar format limits spatial comprehension. Reconstruction of fully three-dimensional bony and soft tissue surfaces from high resolution CT scans has been accomplished by a level slicing edge detector coupled to a hidden surface processor without perspective depth transformation. This method has clarified aberrant anatomy, facilitated surgical planning and improved quantitative postoperative evaluation in more than 200 clinical cases. Advanced computer aided design techniques, originally developed for the manufacture of military aircraft, have been applied to the planning and evaluation of craniofacial procedures as well. This allows the application of interactive digital graphic technology to surgical patient management.


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