“SoftCel – an application of raster scan graphics to conventional cel animation” by Stern

  • ©Garland Stern




    SoftCel - an application of raster scan graphics to conventional cel animation



    The system described uses frame buffers to provide digital analogues to the traditional processes of copying pencil drawings onto cels, painting them, and photographing them. The copying process is replaced by scanning the pencil drawings with a television camera and digitizing the video signal. Several image processing operations are performed on the digitized drawings to condition them for the next step, interactive painting of the drawings mediated by a computer program. The painted drawings are then combined with each other and painted backgrounds for frame by frame recording on film or video tape.


    1. Catmull, Edwin, Personal communication, Spring 1977.
    2. Diment, A. R., “Computer Animation”, Systems, December/January 1976.
    3. Kitching, Alan, “Computer Animation – Some New ANTICS”, British Kinematography Sound and Television, December 1973.
    4. Stern, Garland, GAS – A System for Computer-Aided Keyframe Animation, PhD Dissertation, University of Utah, Spring 1978.
    5. Wein, M., and L. Bertnyk, “Computer Generated Key-Frame Animation”, Journal SMPTE, March 1971.
    6. Smith, Alvy Ray, “Fill and Tint Fill”, NYIT Graphics Lab Technical Memo No. 6, July 1978.
    7. Smith, Alvy Ray, “Paint”, NYIT Graphics Lab Technical Memo No. 7, July 1978.
    8. Rosenfeld, Azriel, and Avinash C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing, Academic Press, New York, 1976.

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