“Real-time, all-frequency shadows in dynamic scenes” by Dong, Annen, Mertens, Bekaert, Seidel, et al. …

  • ©Zhao Dong, Thomas Annen, Tom Mertens, Philippe Bekaert, Hans-Peter Seidel, and Jan Kautz




    Real-time, all-frequency shadows in dynamic scenes



    Shadow computation in dynamic scenes under complex illumination is a challenging problem. Methods based on precomputation provide accurate, real-time solutions, but are hard to extend to dynamic scenes. Specialized approaches for soft shadows can deal with dynamic objects but are not fast enough to handle more than one light source. In this paper, we present a technique for rendering dynamic objects under arbitrary environment illumination, which does not require any precomputation. The key ingredient is a fast, approximate technique for computing soft shadows, which achieves several hundred frames per second for a single light source. This allows for approximating environment illumination with a sparse collection of area light sources and yields real-time frame rates.


    1. Agarwal, S., Ramamoorthi, R., Belongie, S., and Jensen, H. W. 2003. Structured Importance Sampling of Environment Maps. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 3, 605–612. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Agrawala, M., Ramamoorthi, R., Heirich, A., and Moll, L. 2000. Efficient Image-Based Methods for Rendering Soft Shadows. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH 2000, 375–384. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Annen, T., Mertens, T., Bekaert, P., Seidel, H.-P., and Kautz, J. 2007. Convolution Shadow Maps. In Rendering Techniques 2007 (Proc. of EGSR), 51–60. Google ScholarCross Ref
    4. Arbree, A., Walter, B., and Bala, K. 2005. Pre-Processing Environment Maps for Dynamic Hardware Shadows. Tech. rep., Dept. of Computer Science, Cornell University.Google Scholar
    5. Assarsson, U., and Akenine-Möller, T. 2003. A Geometry-Based Soft Shadow Volume Algorithm Using Graphics Hardware. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 3, 511–520. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Atty, L., Holzschuch, N., Lapierre, M., Hasenfratz, J.-M., Hansen, C., and Sillion, F. 2006. Soft Shadow Maps: Efficient Sampling of Light Source Visibility. Computer Graphics Forum 25, 4.Google ScholarCross Ref
    7. Brabec, S., and Seidel, H.-P. 2002. Single Sample Soft Shadows Using Depth Maps. In Graphics Interface 2002, 219–228.Google Scholar
    8. Chan, E., and Durand, F. 2003. Rendering Fake Soft Shadows with Smoothies. In Rendering Techniques 2003 (Proc. of EGSR), 208–218. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Chen, S., and Williams, L. 1993. View Interpolation for Image Synthesis. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH ’93, 279–288. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Crow, F. 1977. Shadow Algorithms for Computer Graphics. Computer Graphics (Proc. of SIGGRAPH ’77) (July), 242–248. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Crow, F. C. 1984. Summed-Area Tables for Texture Mapping. Computer Graphics (Proc. of SIGGRAPH ’84), 207–212. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Donnelly, W., and Lauritzen, A. 2006. Variance Shadow Maps. In Proc. of SI3D ’06, 161–165. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Drettakis, G., and Fiume, E. 1994. A Fast Shadow Algorithm for Area Light Sources Using Backprojection. In SIGGRAPH ’94, 223–230. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Fernando, R. 2005. Percentage-Closer Soft Shadows. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Sketches, 35. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Guennebaud, G., Barthe, L., and Paulin, M. 2006. Realtime Soft Shadow Mapping by Backprojection. In Rendering Techinques 2006 (Proc. of EGSR), 227–234. Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. Guennebaud, G., Barthe, L., and Paulin, M. 2007. High-Quality Adaptive Soft Shadow Mapping. Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. of Eurographics 2007) 26, 3 (Sept.).Google Scholar
    17. Hasenfratz, J.-M., Lapierre, M., Holzschuch, N., and Sillion, F. 2003. A Survey of Real-Time Soft Shadows Algorithms. Computer Graphics Forum 22, 4, 753–774.Google ScholarCross Ref
    18. Hensley, J., Scheuermann, T., Singh, M., and Lastra, A. 2005. Interactive Summed-Area Table Generation for Glossy Environmental Reflections. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2005 Sketches, 34. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Kautz, J., Lehtinen, J., and Aila, T. 2004. Hemispherical Rasterization for Self-Shadowing of Dynamic Objects. In Rendering Techniques 2004 (Proc. of EGSR), 179–184. Google ScholarCross Ref
    20. Lauritzen, A. 2007. Summed-Area Variance Shadow Maps. In GPU Gems 3, H. Nguyen, Ed.Google Scholar
    21. Ng, R., Ramamoorthi, R., and Hanrahan, P. 2003. All-Frequency Shadows Using Non-linear Wavelet Lighting Approximation. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 3, 376–381. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Ostromoukhov, V., Donohue, C., and Jodoin, P.-M. 2004. Fast Hierarchical Importance Sampling with Blue Noise Properties. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 3, 488–495. Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Ren, Z., Wang, R., Snyder, J., Zhou, K., Liu, X., Sun, B., Sloan, P.-P., Bao, H., Peng, Q., and Guo, B. 2006. Real-Time Soft Shadows in Dynamic Scenes using Spherical Harmonic Exponentiation. ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 3, 977–986. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Schwarz, M., and Stamminger, M. 2007. Bitmask Soft Shadows. Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. of Eurographics 2007) 26, 3 (Sept.), 515–524.Google Scholar
    25. Sloan, P.-P., Kautz, J., and Snyder, J. 2002. Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Rendering in Dynamic, Low-Frequency Lighting Environments. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3, 527–536. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Sloan, P.-P., Luna, B., and Snyder, J. 2005. Local, Deformable Precomputed Radiance Transfer. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 3, 1216–1224. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Soler, C., and Sillion, F. 1998. Fast Calculation of Soft Shadow Textures Using Convolution. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH ’98, 321–332. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Stewart, A. J., and Ghali, S. 1994. Fast Computation of Shadow Boundaries Using Spatial Coherence and Backprojections. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH ’94, 231–238. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Williams, L. 1978. Casting Curved Shadows on Curved Surfaces. Computer Graphics (Proc. of SIGGRAPH ’78) (August), 270–274. Google ScholarDigital Library
    30. Woo, A., Poulin, P., and Fournier, A. 1990. A Survey of Shadow Algorithms. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications 10, 6, 13–32. Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Wyman, C., and Hansen, C. 2003. Penumbra Maps: Approximate Soft Shadows in Real-Time. In Rendering Techniques 2003 (Proc. of EGSR), 202–207. Google ScholarDigital Library
    32. Zhou, K., Hu, Y., Lin, S., Guo, B., and Shum, H.-Y. 2005. Precomputed Shadow Fields for Dynamic Scenes. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 3, 1196–1201. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: