“Physics-inspired upsampling for cloth simulation in games” by Kavan, Gerszewski, Bargteil and Sloan

  • ©Ladislav Kavan, Daniel Gerszewski, Adam Bargteil, and Peter-Pike Sloan




    Physics-inspired upsampling for cloth simulation in games



    We propose a method for learning linear upsampling operators for physically-based cloth simulation, allowing us to enrich coarse meshes with mid-scale details in minimal time and memory budgets, as required in computer games. In contrast to classical subdivision schemes, our operators adapt to a specific context (e.g. a flag flapping in the wind or a skirt worn by a character), which allows them to achieve higher detail. Our method starts by pre-computing a pair of coarse and fine training simulations aligned with tracking constraints using harmonic test functions. Next, we train the upsampling operators with a new regularization method that enables us to learn mid-scale details without overfitting. We demonstrate generalizability to unseen conditions such as different wind velocities or novel character motions. Finally, we discuss how to re-introduce high frequency details not explainable by the coarse mesh alone using oscillatory modes.


    1. Baraff, D., and Witkin, A. 1998. Large steps in cloth simulation. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1998, 43–54. Google Scholar
    2. Barbič, J., and James, D. L. 2005. Real-time subspace integration for St. Venant-Kirchhoff deformable models. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 3, 982–990. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Barbič, J., and Popović, J. 2008. Real-time control of physically based simulations using gentle forces. ACM Trans. Graph. 27, 5, 163:1–163:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Barbič, J., da Silva, M., and Popović, J. 2009. Deformable object animation using reduced optimal control. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 3, 53:1–53:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Bergou, M., Mathur, S., Wardetzky, M., and Grinspun, E. 2007. TRACKS: Toward directable thin shells. ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 3, 50:1–50:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Bridson, R., Fedkiw, R., and Anderson, J. 2002. Robust treatment of collisions, contact and friction for cloth animation. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3, 594–603. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Cordier, F., and Magnenat-Thalmann, N. 2005. A data-driven approach for real-time clothes simulation. Comput. Graph. Forum 24, 2, 173–183.Google ScholarCross Ref
    8. Cutler, L. D., Gershbein, R., Wang, X. C., Curtis, C., Maigret, E., Prasso, L., and Farson, P. 2005. An art-directed wrinkle system for CG character clothing. In Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Computer animation, 117–125. Google Scholar
    9. de Aguiar, E., Sigal, L., Treuille, A., and Hodgins, J. K. 2010. Stable spaces for real-time clothing. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 4, 106:1–106:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. DeRose, T., Kass, M., and Truong, T. 1998. Subdivision surfaces in character animation. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1998, 85–94. Google Scholar
    11. English, E., and Bridson, R. 2008. Animating developable surfaces using nonconforming elements. ACM Trans. Graph. 27, 3, 66:1–66:5. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Feng, W.-W., Kim, B.-U., and Yu, Y. 2008. Real-time data-driven deformation using kernel canonical correlation analysis. ACM Trans. Graph. 27, 3, 91:1–91:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Feng, W.-W., Yu, Y., and Kim, B.-U. 2010. A deformation transformer for real-time cloth animation. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 4, 108:1–108:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Goldenthal, R., Harmon, D., Fattal, R., Bercovier, M., and Grinspun, E. 2007. Efficient simulation of inextensible cloth. ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 3, 49:1–49:8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Grinspun, E., Hirani, A. N., Desbrun, M., and Schröder, P. 2003. Discrete shells. In Proceedings of the 2003 Symposium on Computer animation, 62–67. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Hadap, S., Bangerter, E., Volino, P., and Magnenat-Thalmann, N. 1999. Animating wrinkles on clothes. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Visualization Conference, 175–182. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Harmon, D., Vouga, E., Smith, B., Tamstorf, R., and Grinspun, E. 2009. Asynchronous contact mechanics. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 3, 87:1–87:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Herman, D. L. 2001. Using precomputed cloth simulations for interactive applications. In SIGGRAPH 2001 Sketches.Google Scholar
    19. Jakobsen, T. 2001. Advanced character physics. In Game Developers Conference 2001.Google Scholar
    20. James, D. L., and Fatahalian, K. 2003. Precomputing interactive dynamic deformable scenes. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 3, 879–887. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. James, D. L., and Pai, D. K. 2002. Dyrt: dynamic response textures for real time deformation simulation with graphics hardware. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3, 582–585. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Kang, M. K., and Lee, J. 2007. A real-time cloth draping simulation algorithm using conjugate harmonic functions. Comput. Graph. 31, 2, 271–279. Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Kang, Y.-M., Choi, J.-H., Cho, H.-G., and Lee, D.-H. 2001. An efficient animation of wrinkled cloth with approximate implicit integration. The Visual Computer 17, 147–157.Google ScholarCross Ref
    24. Kass, M., and Anderson, J. 2008. Animating oscillatory motion with overlap: wiggly splines. ACM Trans. Graph. 27, 3, 28:1–28:8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Kavan, L., Sloan, P.-P., and O’Sullivan, C. 2010. Fast and efficient skinning of animated meshes. Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2, 327–336.Google ScholarCross Ref
    26. Kim, T.-Y., and Vendrovsky, E. 2008. Drivenshape: a data-driven approach for shape deformation. In Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Computer animation, 49–55. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Kry, P. G., James, D. L., and Pai, D. K. 2002. EigenSkin: real time large deformation character skinning in hardware. In Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Computer animation, 153–159. Google Scholar
    28. Larboulette, C., and Cani, M.-P. 2004. Real-time dynamic wrinkles. In Proceedings of Computer Graphics International 2004, 522–525. Google ScholarCross Ref
    29. Lawson, C. L., and Hanson, R. J. 1974. Solving Least Squares Problems. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
    30. Lévy, B., and Zhang, R. H. 2010. Spectral geometry processing. In SIGGRAPH 2010 Course Notes.Google Scholar
    31. Loop, C. 1987. Smooth Subdivision Surfaces Based on Triangles. Master’s thesis, University of Utah.Google Scholar
    32. Loviscach, J. 2006. Wrinkling coarse meshes on the GPU. Comput. Graph. Forum 25, 3, 467–476.Google ScholarCross Ref
    33. Müller, M., and Chentanez, N. 2010. Wrinkle meshes. In Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Computer animation, 85–92. Google ScholarDigital Library
    34. Müller, M., Heidelberger, B., Hennix, M., and Ratcliff, J. 2007. Position based dynamics. J. Vis. Comun. Image Represent. 18, 2, 109–118. Google ScholarDigital Library
    35. Müller, M., James, D., Stam, J., and Thürey, N. 2008. Real-time physics. In SIGGRAPH 2008 Course Notes.Google Scholar
    36. Müller, M. 2008. Hierarchical position based dynamics. In Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Virtual Reality Interactions and Physical Simulations.Google Scholar
    37. Nealen, A., Müller, M., Keiser, R., Boxerman, E., and Carlson, M. 2005. Physically based deformable models in computer graphics. Comput. Graph. Forum 25, 4, 809–836.Google ScholarCross Ref
    38. Pighin, F., and Lewis, J. P. 2007. Practical least-squares for computer graphics. In SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes. Google Scholar
    39. Pinkall, U., and Polthier, K. 1993. Computing discrete minimal surfaces and their conjugates. Experiment. Math. 2, 15–36.Google ScholarCross Ref
    40. Provot, X. 1995. Deformation constraints in a mass-spring model to describe rigid cloth behavior. In Graphics Interface 1995, 147–154.Google Scholar
    41. Rohmer, D., Popa, T., Cani, M.-P., Hahmann, S., and Sheffer, A. 2010. Animation wrinkling: augmenting coarse cloth simulations with realistic-looking wrinkles. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 5, 157:1–157:8. Google ScholarCross Ref
    42. Schenk, O., and Gartner, K. 2006. On fast factorization pivoting methods for symmetric indefinite systems. Elec. Trans. Numer. Anal. 23, 58–179.Google Scholar
    43. Sorkine, O., Cohen-Or, D., Irony, D., and Toledo, S. 2005. Geometry-aware bases for shape approximation. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 11, 2, 171–180. Google ScholarDigital Library
    44. Stam, J. 2009. Nucleus: towards a unified dynamics solver for computer graphics. In IEEE Int. Conf. on CAD and Comput. Graph., 1–11.Google Scholar
    45. Stoll, C., Gall, J., de Aguiar, E., Thrun, S., and Theobalt, C. 2010. Video-based reconstruction of animatable human characters. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 6, 139:1–139:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    46. Thomaszewski, B., Pabst, S., and Strasser, W. 2009. Continuum-based strain limiting. Comput. Graph. Forum 28, 2, 569–576.Google ScholarCross Ref
    47. Tsiknis, K. D. 2006. Better Cloth Through Unbiased Strain Limiting and Physics-Aware Subdivision. Master’s thesis, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
    48. Vallet, B., and Lévy, B. 2008. Spectral geometry processing with manifold harmonics. Comput. Graph. Forum 27, 2, 251–260.Google ScholarCross Ref
    49. Volodine, T., Vanderstraeten, D., and Roose, D. 2006. Smoothing of meshes and point clouds using weighted geometry-aware bases. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4077/2006, 687–693. Google ScholarDigital Library
    50. Wang, H., Hecht, F., Ramamoorthi, R., and O’Brien, J. 2010. Example-based wrinkle synthesis for clothing animation. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 4, 107:1–107:8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    51. Wang, H., O’Brien, J., and Ramamoorthi, R. 2010. Multi-resolution isotropic strain limiting. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 6, 156:1–156:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    52. Wardetzky, M., Bergou, M., Harmon, D., Zorin, D., and Grinspun, E. 2007. Discrete quadratic curvature energies. Comput. Aided Geom. Des. 24, 8-9, 499–518. Google ScholarDigital Library
    53. Zorin, D., Schröder, P., DeRose, A., Kobbelt, L., Levin, A., and Sweldens, W. 2000. Subdivision for modeling and animation. In SIGGRAPH 2000 Course Notes.Google Scholar

ACM Digital Library Publication: