“Knit sketching: from cut & sew patterns to machine-knit garments” by Kaspar, Wu, Luo, Makatura and Matusik

  • ©Alexandre Kaspar, Kui Wu, Yiyue Luo, Liane Makatura, and Wojciech Matusik




    Knit sketching: from cut & sew patterns to machine-knit garments



    We present a novel workflow to design and program knitted garments for industrial whole-garment knitting machines. Inspired by traditional garment making based on cutting and sewing, we propose a sketch representation with additional annotations necessary to model the knitting process. Our system bypasses complex editing operations in 3D space, which allows us to achieve interactive editing of both the garment shape and its underlying time process. We provide control of the local knitting direction, the location of important course interfaces, as well as the placement of stitch irregularities that form seams in the final garment. After solving for the constrained knitting time process, the garment sketches are automatically segmented into a minimal set of simple regions that can be knitted using simple knitting procedures. Finally, our system optimizes a stitch graph hierarchically while providing control over the tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. We showcase different garments created with our web interface.


    1. Lea Albaugh, Scott Hudson, and Lining Yao. 2019. Digital Fabrication of Soft Actuated Objects by Machine Knitting (CHI ’19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 1–13.Google Scholar
    2. Aric Bartle, Alla Sheffer, Vladimir G. Kim, Danny M. Kaufman, Nicholas Vining, and Floraine Berthouzoz. 2016. Physics-Driven Pattern Adjustment for Direct 3D Garment Editing. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 4, Article 50 (July 2016), 11 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Floraine Berthouzoz, Akash Garg, Danny M. Kaufman, Eitan Grinspun, and Maneesh Agrawala. 2013. Parsing Sewing Patterns into 3D Garments. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 4, Article 85 (July 2013), 12 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Clo3D. 2020. Clo3D. [Online]. Available from: https://www.clo3d.com.Google Scholar
    5. Philippe Decaudin, Dan Julius, Jamie Wither, Laurence Boissieux, Alla Sheffer, and Marie-Paule Cani. 2006. Virtual Garments: A Fully Geometric Approach for Clothing Design. Computer Graphics Forum 25, 3 (2006), 625–634.Google ScholarCross Ref
    6. Nanette Donohue. 2015. 750 Knitting Stitches: The Ultimate Knit Stitch Bible.Google Scholar
    7. Peng Guan, Loretta Reiss, David A. Hirshberg, Alexander Weiss, and Michael J. Black. 2012. DRAPE: DRessing Any PErson. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 35 (July 2012), 10 pages.Google Scholar
    8. Min-Woo Han and Sung-Hoon Ahn. 2017. Blooming Knit Flowers: Loop-Linked Soft Morphing Structures for Soft Robotics. Advanced Materials 29, 13 (2017), 1606580.Google ScholarCross Ref
    9. Megan Hofmann, Lea Albaugh, Ticha Sethapakadi, Jessica Hodgins, Scott E Hudson, James McCann, and Jennifer Mankoff. 2019. KnitPicking textures: Programming and modifying complex knitted textures for machine and hand knitting. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. 5–16.Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Ping Huang, Junfeng Yao, and Hengheng Zhao. 2016. Automatic realistic 3D garment generation based on two images. In 2016 International Conference on Virtual Reality and Visualization (ICVRV). IEEE, 250–257.Google ScholarCross Ref
    11. Takeo Igarashi and John F. Hughes. 2003. Clothing Manipulation. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 3 (July 2003), 697.Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Yuki Igarashi, Takeo Igarashi, and Hiromasa Suzuki. 2008a. Knitting a 3D Model. Computer Graphics Forum 27, 7 (2008), 1737–1743.Google ScholarCross Ref
    13. Yuki Igarashi, Takeo Igarashi, and Hiromasa Suzuki. 2008b. Knitty: 3D Modeling of Knitted Animals with a Production Assistant Interface.. In Eurographics (Short Papers). The Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland, 17–20.Google Scholar
    14. Wenzel Jakob, Marco Tarini, Daniele Panozzo, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2015. Instant Field-Aligned Meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 6, Article 189 (Oct. 2015), 15 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Steven G Johnson. 2014. The NLopt nonlinear-optimization package. http://github.com/stevengj/nloptGoogle Scholar
    16. Alexandre Kaspar, Liane Makatura, and Wojciech Matusik. 2019a. Knitting Skeletons: A Computer-Aided Design Tool for Shaping and Patterning of Knitted Garments. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. 53–65.Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Alexandre Kaspar, Tae-Hyun Oh, Liane Makatura, Petr Kellnhofer, and Wojciech Matusik. 2019b. Neural inverse knitting: from images to manufacturing instructions. In International Conference on Machine Learning. PMLR, 3272–3281.Google Scholar
    18. Jonathan Leaf, Rundong Wu, Eston Schweickart, Doug L. James, and Steve Marschner. 2018. Interactive Design of Yarn-Level Cloth Patterns. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia 2018) 37, 6 (11 2018).Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Minchen Li, Alla Sheffer, Eitan Grinspun, and Nicholas Vining. 2018. Foldsketch: Enriching Garments with Physically Reproducible Folds. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 4, Article 133 (July 2018), 13 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Jenny Lin, Vidya Narayanan, and James McCann. 2018. Efficient Transfer Planning for Flat Knitting. In Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM Symposium on Computational Fabrication (Cambridge, Massachusetts) (SCF ’18). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 1, 7 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Yiyue Luo, Kui Wu, Tomás Palacios, and Wojciech Matusik. 2021. KnitUI: Fabricating Interactive and Sensing Textiles with Machine Knitting. In Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Yokohama, Japan.) (CHI ’21). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 1–12.Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. MarvelousDesigner. 2020. MarvelousDesigner. [Online]. Available from: https://www.marvelousdesigner.com.Google Scholar
    23. James McCann. 2017. The “Knitout” (.k) File Format. [Online]. Available from: https://textiles-lab.github.io/knitout/knitout.html.Google Scholar
    24. James McCann, Lea Albaugh, Vidya Narayanan, April Grow, Wojciech Matusik, Jennifer Mankoff, and Jessica Hodgins. 2016. A Compiler for 3D Machine Knitting. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 4, Article 49 (July 2016), 11 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Juan Montes, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Sudhir Mudur, and Tiberiu Popa. 2020. Computational Design of Skintight Clothing. ACM Trans. Graph. 39, 4, Article 105 (July 2020), 12 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Vidya Narayanan, Lea Albaugh, Jessica Hodgins, Stelian Coros, and James Mccann. 2018. Automatic Machine Knitting of 3D Meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 3, Article 35 (Aug. 2018), 15 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Vidya Narayanan, Kui Wu, Cem Yuksel, and James McCann. 2019. Visual knitting machine programming. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 38, 4 (2019), 1–13.Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Jifei Ou, Daniel Oran, Don Derek Haddad, Joseph Paradiso, and Hiroshi Ishii. 2019. SensorKnit: Architecting textile sensors with machine knitting. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing 6, 1 (2019), 1–11.Google Scholar
    29. Mariana Popescu, Matthias Rippmann, Tom Van Mele, and Philippe Block. 2018. Automated Generation of Knit Patterns for Non-developable Surfaces. In Humanizing Digital Reality, De Rycke K. et al. (Ed.). Springer, Singapore.Google Scholar
    30. Fabian Scheidt, Jifei Ou, Hiroshi Ishii, and Tobias Meisen. 2020. deepKnit: Learning-based Generation of Machine Knitting Code. Procedia Manufacturing 51 (2020), 485 — 492. 30th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM2021).Google ScholarCross Ref
    31. Nicholas Sharp, Keenan Crane, et al. 2019. geometry-central. www.geometry-central.net.Google Scholar
    32. Yu Shen, Junbang Liang, and Ming C Lin. 2020. GAN-based Garment Generation Using Sewing Pattern Images. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Vol. 1. 3.Google ScholarDigital Library
    33. Shima Seiki. 2011. SDS-ONE Apex3. [Online]. Available from: http://www.shimaseiki.com/product/design/sdsone_apex/flat/.Google Scholar
    34. David J Spencer. 2001. Knitting technology: a comprehensive handbook and practical guide. Vol. 16. CRC press.Google Scholar
    35. Stoll. 2011. M1Plus pattern software. [Online]. Available from: http://www.stoll.com/stoll_software_solutions_en_4/pattern_software_m1plus/3_1.Google Scholar
    36. Vitaly Surazhsky, Tatiana Surazhsky, Danil Kirsanov, Steven J. Gortler, and Hugues Hoppe. 2005. Fast Exact and Approximate Geodesics on Meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 3 (July 2005), 553–560.Google ScholarDigital Library
    37. E. Turquin, J. Wither, L. Boissieux, M. Cani, and J. F. Hughes. 2007. A Sketch-Based Interface for Clothing Virtual Characters. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 27, 1 (2007), 72–81.Google ScholarDigital Library
    38. Nobuyuki Umetani, Danny M. Kaufman, Takeo Igarashi, and Eitan Grinspun. 2011. Sensitive Couture for Interactive Garment Modeling and Editing. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 4, Article 90 (July 2011), 12 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    39. Jenny Underwood. 2009. The design of 3D shape knitted preforms. Ph.D. Dissertation. Fashion and Textiles, RMIT University.Google Scholar
    40. Richard Vallett, Ryan Young, Chelsea Knittel, Youngmoo Kim, and Genevieve Dion. 2016. Development of a Carbon Fiber Knitted Capacitive Touch Sensor. MRS Advances 1, 38 (2016), 2641–2651.Google Scholar
    41. Pascal Volino, Frederic Cordier, and Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann. 2005. From early virtual garment simulation to interactive fashion design. Computer-Aided Design 37, 6 (2005), 593 — 608. CAD Methods in Garment Design.Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. Charlie C. L. Wang, Yu Wang, and Matthew M. F. Yuen. 2005. Design Automation for Customized Apparel Products. Comput. Aided Des. 37, 7 (June 2005), 675–691.Google Scholar
    43. Huamin Wang. 2018. Rule-Free Sewing Pattern Adjustment with Precision and Efficiency. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 4, Article 53 (July 2018), 13 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    44. Tuanfeng Y. Wang, Duygu Ceylan, Jovan Popović, and Niloy J. Mitra. 2018. Learning a Shared Shape Space for Multimodal Garment Design. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 6, Article 203 (Dec. 2018), 13 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    45. Irmandy Wicaksono, Carson I Tucker, Tao Sun, Cesar A Guerrero, Clare Liu, Wesley M Woo, Eric J Pence, and Canan Dagdeviren. 2020. A tailored, electronic textile conformable suit for large-scale spatiotemporal physiological sensing in vivo. npj Flexible Electronics 4, 1 (2020), 1–13.Google Scholar
    46. Kui Wu, Xifeng Gao, Zachary Ferguson, Daniele Panozzo, and Cem Yuksel. 2018. Stitch Meshing. ACM Trans. Graph. (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2018) 37, 4, Article 130 (jul 2018), 14 pages.Google Scholar
    47. Kui Wu, Hannah Swan, and Cem Yuksel. 2019. Knittable Stitch Meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 38, 1, Article 10 (Jan. 2019), 13 pages.Google ScholarDigital Library
    48. Kui Wu, Marco Tarini, Cem Yuksel, James Mccann, and Xifeng Gao. 2021. Wearable 3D Machine Knitting: Automatic Generation of Shaped Knit Sheets to Cover Real-World Objects. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2021), 1–1.Google Scholar
    49. Cem Yuksel, Jonathan M. Kaldor, Doug L. James, and Steve Marschner. 2012. Stitch Meshes for Modeling Knitted Clothing with Yarn-level Detail. ACM Trans. Graph. (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2012) 31, 3, Article 37 (2012), 12 pages.Google Scholar

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: