“Interactive Design and Stability Analysis of Decorative Joinery for Furniture” by Yao, Kaufman, Gingold and Agrawala

  • ©JiaXian Yao, Danny M. Kaufman, Yotam Gingold, and Maneesh Agrawala




    Interactive Design and Stability Analysis of Decorative Joinery for Furniture


Session Title: Work it, Make it Better, Stronger



    High-quality hand-made furniture often employs intrinsic joints that geometrically interlock along mating surfaces. Such joints increase the structural integrity of the furniture and add to its visual appeal. We present an interactive tool for designing such intrinsic joints. Users draw the visual appearance of the joints on the surface of an input furniture model as groups of two-dimensional (2D) regions that must belong to the same part. Our tool automatically partitions the furniture model into a set of solid 3D parts that conform to the user-specified 2D regions and assemble into the furniture. If the input does not merit assemblable solid 3D parts, then our tool reports the failure and suggests options for redesigning the 2D surface regions so that they are assemblable. Similarly, if any parts in the resulting assembly are unstable, then our tool suggests where additional 2D regions should be drawn to better interlock the parts and improve stability. To perform this stability analysis, we introduce a novel variational static analysis method that addresses shortcomings of the equilibrium method for our task. Specifically, our method correctly detects sliding instabilities and reports the locations and directions of sliding and hinging failures. We show that our tool can be used to generate over 100 joints inspired by traditional woodworking and Japanese joinery. We also design and fabricate nine complete furniture assemblies that are stable and connected using only the intrinsic joints produced by our tool.


    1. Maneesh Agrawala, Doantam Phan, Julie Heiser, John Haymaker, Jeff Klingner, Pat Hanrahan, and Barbara Tversky. 2003. Designing effective step-by-step assembly instructions. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 3 (July 2003), 828–837. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Moritz Bächer, Emily Whiting, Bernd Bickel, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2014. Spin-it: Optimizing moment of inertia for spinnable objects. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 4, Article 96 (July 2014), 96:1–96:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Desai Chen, Pitchaya Sitthi-amorn, Justin T. Lan, and Wojciech Matusik. 2013. Computing and fabricating multiplanar models. Comput. Graph. Forum 32, 2pt3 (2013), 305–315.Google Scholar
    4. Xuelin Chen, Hao Zhang, Jinjie Lin, Ruizhen Hu, Lin Lu, Qixing Huang, Bedrich Benes, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Baoquan Chen. 2015. Dapper: Decompose-and-pack for 3d printing. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 6, Article 213 (Oct. 2015), 213:1–213:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Paolo Cignoni, Nico Pietroni, Luigi Malomo, and Roberto Scopigno. 2014. Field-aligned mesh joinery. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 1, Article 11 (Feb. 2014), 11:1–11:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Chi-Wing Fu, Peng Song, Xiaoqi Yan, Lee Wei Yang, Pradeep Kumar Jayaraman, and Daniel Cohen-Or. 2015. Computational interlocking furniture assembly. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 4, Article 91 (July 2015), 91:1–91:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Suresh Goyal, Andy Ruina, and Jim Papadopoulos. 1991. Planar sliding with dry friction, Part 1. Limit surface and moment function. Wear 143 (1991), 307–330.Google ScholarCross Ref
    8. Leonidas J. Guibas, Dan Halperin, Hirohisa Hirukawa, Jean-Claude Latombe, and Randall H. Wilson. 1995. A simple and efficient procedure for polyhedral assembly partitioning under infinitesimal motions. In IEEE Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3. IEEE, 2553–2560.Google Scholar
    9. Philipp Herholz, Wojciech Matusik, and Marc Alexa. 2015. Approximating free-form geometry with height fields for manufacturing. Comput. Graph. Forum 34, 2 (2015), 239–251. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Kristian Hildebrand, Bernd Bickel, and Marc Alexa. 2012. crdbrd: Shape fabrication by sliding planar slices. Comp. Graph. Forum 31, 2pt3 (May 2012), 583–592. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Ruizhen Hu, Honghua Li, Hao Zhang, and Daniel Cohen-Or. 2014. Approximate pyramidal shape decomposition. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 6, Article 213 (Nov. 2014), 213:1–213:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. S. Huerta. 2001. Mechanics of Masonry Vaults: The Equilibrium Approach. Universidade do Minho (2001).Google Scholar
    13. Danny M. Kaufman, Shinjiro Sueda, Doug L. James, and Dinesh K. Pai. 2008. Staggered projections for frictional contact in multibody systems. ACM TOG (SIGGRAPH Asia) 27, 5 (2008), 1–11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Manfred Lau, Akira Ohgawara, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi. 2011. Converting 3D furniture models to fabricatable parts and connectors. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 4, Article 85 (July 2011), 85:1–85:6. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Honghua Li, Ibraheem Alhashim, Hao Zhang, Ariel Shamir, and Daniel Cohen-Or. 2012. Stackabilization. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6, Article 158 (Nov. 2012), 158:1–158:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Honghua Li, Ruizhen Hu, Ibraheem Alhashim, and Hao Zhang. 2015. Foldabilizing furniture. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 4, Article 90 (July 2015), 90:1–90:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Lin Lu, Andrei Sharf, Haisen Zhao, Yuan Wei, Qingnan Fan, Xuelin Chen, Yann Savoye, Changhe Tu, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Baoquan Chen. 2014. Build-to-last: Strength to weight 3D printed objects. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 4, Article 97 (July 2014), 97:1–97:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Linjie Luo, Ilya Baran, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, and Wojciech Matusik. 2012. Chopper: Partitioning models into 3D-printable parts. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6, Article 129 (Nov. 2012), 129:1–129:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. James McCrae, Nobuyuki Umetani, and Karan Singh. 2014. FlatFitFab: Interactive modeling with planar sections. In User Interface Software and Technology (UIST). 13–22. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Jean Jaques Moreau. 1966. Quadratic programming in mechanics: One-sided constraints. J. SIAM Contr. 4, 1 (1966), 153–158.Google ScholarCross Ref
    21. T. Noll. 2009. Joint Book: The Complete Guide to Wood Joinery. Chartwell Books.Google Scholar
    22. J A Ochsendorf. 2002. Collapse of Masonry Structures. University of Cambridge. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
    23. Yeonjoo Oh, Gaberial Johnson, Mark Gross, and Ellenyi-Luen Do. 2006. The designosaur and the furniture factory. In Design Computing and Cognition, Gero Johns (Ed.). Springer, Amsterdam, 123–140.Google Scholar
    24. J. Postell. 2012. Furniture Design. Wiley.Google Scholar
    25. Romain Prévost, Emily Whiting, Sylvain Lefebvre, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2013. Make it stand: Balancing shapes for 3D fabrication. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 4, Article 81 (July 2013), 81:1–81:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Gary Rogowski. 2002. The Complete Illustrated Guide To Joinery. Complete Illustrated Guide. Taunton Press.Google Scholar
    27. Bruce Romney, Cyprien Godard, Michael Goldwasser, G. Ramkumar, and others. 1995. An efficient system for geometric assembly sequence generation and evaluation. Computers in Engineering (1995), 699–712.Google Scholar
    28. Daniel Saakes, Thomas Cambazard, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi. 2013. PacCAM: Material capture and interactive 2D packing for efficient material usage on CNC cutting machines. In User Interface Software and Technology (UIST). 441–446. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Greg Saul, Manfred Lau, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi. 2011. SketchChair: An all-in-one chair design system for end users. In Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction (TEI). 73–80. Google ScholarDigital Library
    30. Adriana Schulz, Ariel Shamir, David I. W. Levin, Pitchaya Sitthi-amorn, and Wojciech Matusik. 2014. Design and fabrication by example. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 4, Article 62 (July 2014), 62:1–62:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Yuliy Schwartzburg and Mark Pauly. 2013. Fabrication-aware design with intersecting planar pieces. Comput. Graph. Forum 32, 2 (2013), 317–326.Google ScholarCross Ref
    32. K. Seike, Y. Yobuko, and R.M. Davis. 1986. The Art of Japanese Joinery. Weatherhill.Google Scholar
    33. Hijung V. Shin. 2016. Personal communication.Google Scholar
    34. Hijung V. Shin, Christopher F. Porst, Etienne Vouga, John Ochsendorf, and Frédo Durand. 2016. Reconciling elastic and equilibrium methods for static analysis. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 2 (2016), 13–16. Google ScholarDigital Library
    35. Peng Song, Chi-Wing Fu, and Daniel Cohen-Or. 2012. Recursive interlocking puzzles. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6, Article 128 (Nov. 2012), 128:1–128:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    36. Ondrej Stava, Juraj Vanek, Bedrich Benes, Nathan Carr, and Radomír Měch. 2012. Stress relief: Improving structural strength of 3D printable objects. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 48 (July 2012), 48:1–48:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    37. Godfried Toussaint. 1985. Movable separability of sets. In Computational Geometry. Citeseer.Google Scholar
    38. Nobuyuki Umetani, Takeo Igarashi, and Niloy J. Mitra. 2012. Guided exploration of physically valid shapes for furniture design. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 86 (July 2012), 86:1–86:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    39. Nobuyuki Umetani, Yuki Koyama, Ryan Schmidt, and Takeo Igarashi. 2014. Pteromys: Interactive design and optimization of free-formed free-flight model airplanes. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 4, Article 65 (July 2014), 65:1–65:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    40. Weiming Wang, Tuanfeng Y. Wang, Zhouwang Yang, Ligang Liu, Xin Tong, Weihua Tong, Jiansong Deng, Falai Chen, and Xiuping Liu. 2013. Cost-effective printing of 3D objects with skin-frame structures. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 6, Article 177 (Nov. 2013), 177:1–177:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    41. Emily Whiting, John Ochsendorf, and Frédo Durand. 2009. Procedural modeling of structurally-sound masonry buildings. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 5, Article 112 (Dec. 2009), 112:1–112:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. Emily Whiting, Hijung Shin, Robert Wang, John Ochsendorf, and Frédo Durand. 2012. Structural optimization of 3D masonry buildings. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6, Article 159 (Nov. 2012), 159:1–159:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    43. Randall H. Wilson. 1992. On Geometric Assembly Planning. Ph.D. Dissertation. Stanford University. Google ScholarDigital Library
    44. Shiqing Xin, Chi-Fu Lai, Chi-Wing Fu, Tien-Tsin Wong, Ying He, and Daniel Cohen-Or. 2011. Making burr puzzles from 3D models. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 4, Article 97 (July 2011), 97:1–97:8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    45. Yong-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, and Niloy J. Mitra. 2015. Reforming shapes for material-aware fabrication. Comput. Graph. Forum 34, 5 (Aug. 2015), 53–64.Google ScholarDigital Library
    46. Miaojun Yao, Zhili Chen, Linjie Luo, Rui Wang, and Huamin Wang. 2015. Level-set-based partitioning and packing optimization of a printable model. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 6, Article 214 (Oct. 2015), 214:1–214:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    47. Qingnan Zhou, Eitan Grinspun, Denis Zorin, and Alec Jacobson. 2016. Mesh arrangements for solid geometry. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 4, Article 39 (July 2016), 39:1–39:15. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication: