“Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin” by Tsumura, Ojima, Sato, Shiraishi, Akazaki, et al. …

  • ©Norimichi Tsumura, Nobutoshi Ojima, Kayoko Sato, Mitsuhiro Shiraishi, Syuuichi Akazaki, and Yoichi Miyake




    Image-based skin color and texture analysis/synthesis by extracting hemoglobin and melanin information in the skin



    This paper proposes an E-cosmetic function for digital images based on physics and physiologically-based image processing. A practical skin color and texture analysis/synthesis technique is introduced for this E-cosmetic function. Shading on the face is removed by a simple color vector analysis in the optical density domain as an inverse lighting technique. The image without shading is analyzed by a previously introduced technique that extracts hemoglobin and melanin components by independent component analysis. Experimental results using UV-B irradiation and the application of methyl nicotinate on the arms support the physiological validity of the analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed shading removal. We synthesized the way facial images changed due to tanning or alcohol consumption, and compared the synthesized images with images of actual changes in skin color. The comparison shows an excellent match between the synthesized and actual images of changes due to tanning and alcohol consumption. We also proposed a technique to synthesize the change of texture in pigment due to aging or the application of cosmetics. The pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis technique was used for the spatial processing of texture. Using the proposed technique, we could realistically change the skin color and texture of a 50 year-old woman to that of a 20 year-old woman.


    1. BLANZ V. AND VETTER T. 1999. A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH’99, 187–194. Google Scholar
    2. DEBEVEC P., HAWKINS T., TCHOU C., DUIKER H.-P., SAROKIN W., AND SAGAR M. 2000. Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000, 145–156. Google Scholar
    3. DREW M. S., CHEN C., HORDLEY S. D., AND FINLAYSON G, D. 2002. Sensor transforms for invariant image enhancement. In Proceeding of IS&T /SID’s Tenth Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, 325–330.Google Scholar
    4. DUDA R. O. AND HART, P. E. 1973. Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
    5. FREEFBERG I. M., EISEN A. Z., WOLFF K., AUSTEN F. K, GOLDSMITH L. A., KATZ S. I., AND FITSPATRICK T. B. 1999 Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, McGraw HillGoogle Scholar
    6. GEMERT M. J. C. V, JACQUES S. L., STERBORG H. J. C. M, AND STAR W. M. 1989. Skin Optics. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 36 1146–1154.Google ScholarCross Ref
    7. HANRAHAN P. AND KRUEGER W. 1993. Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH ’93, ACM Press / Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, ACM, 187–194. Google Scholar
    8. HEEGER D. J. AND BERGEN J. R. 1995. Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 95, 229–238. Google Scholar
    9. HIRAOKA M., FIRBANK M., ESSENPREIS M., COPE M., ARRIGE S. R., ZEE P. V. D., AND DELPY D. T. 1993. A Monte Carlo investigation of optical pathlength in inhomogeneous tissue and its application to near-infrared spectroscopy. Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 1859–1876.Google ScholarCross Ref
    10. HUNT, R. W. G. H. 1995. The Reproduction of Colour, Fifth edition, Fountain Press.Google Scholar
    11. HYVARINEN A., KARHUNEN J., AND OJA E. 2001. Independent Component Analysis, Wiley Inter-Science.Google Scholar
    12. HYVARINEN A. AND OJA E. 1997. A fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis. Neural Computation 9, 1483–1492. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. ICC (International Color Consortium) 1998. Spec ICC.1:1998-09, File Format for Color Profiles. ICC.Google Scholar
    14. IEC 61966-2-1 1999. Multimedia Systems and Equipment – Colour Measurement and Management – Part 2–1: Colour Management – Default RGB Colour Space -sRGB, IEC.Google Scholar
    15. ISHII T., YASUDA T., YOKOI S., AND TORIWAKI J. 1993. A generation model for human skin texture. In Proceedings of CG International., Springer-Verlag, 139–150.Google Scholar
    16. JENSEN H. W., MAESHNER S. R., LEVOY M., AND HANRAHAN P. 2001. A practical model of subsurface light transport. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, 551–518. Google Scholar
    17. JENSEN H. W. AND BUHLER J. 2002. A rapid hierarchical rendering technique for translucent materials. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002 576–581. Google Scholar
    18. KLINKER G. J., SHAFER S. A. AND KANADE T. 1990. A Physical Approach to Color Image Understanding”, International Journal on Computer Vision, 4(1) 7–38. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. MARSHNER S. R. AND GREENBERG D. P. 1997. Inverse lighting for photography. In Proceeding of Fifth IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, 262–265.Google Scholar
    20. MARSHNER S. R. 1998. Inverse Rendering for Computer Graphics. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell. Google Scholar
    21. MARSCHNER S. R., WESTIN S. H., LAFORTUNE E. P. F., TORRANCE K. E., AND GREENBERG D. P. 1999. Imagebased BRDF measurement including human skin. In Proceedings of 10th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, 139–152. Google Scholar
    22. NUMATA K., RI K., AND KIRA K., 1999. “E-Make”; A real-time HD skin-make-up machine. IEICE Technical report 23, 76, 11–16. http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/open2001/en/tenji/id17/index.html.Google Scholar
    23. OJIMA N., MINAMI T., AND KAWAI M. 1997. Transmittance measurement of cosmetic layer applied on skin by using image processing. In Proceeding of The 3rd Scientific Conference of the Asian Societies of Cosmetic Scientists, 114.Google Scholar
    24. OJIMA N., YOSHIDA K., OSANAI O., AND AKAZAKI S. 2002. Image synthesis of cosmetic applied skin based on optical properties of foundation layers. In Proceedings of International Congress of Imaging Science, 467–468.Google Scholar
    25. RAMAMOORTHI R. AND HANRAHAN P. 2001. A signal processing framework for inverse rendering. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, 117–128. Google Scholar
    26. SATO Y. AND IKEUCHI K. 1994. Temporal-color space analysis of reflection. Journal of Optical Society of America A 11, 11, 2990–3002.Google ScholarCross Ref
    27. TOMINAGA S. AND WANDELL B. 1989. The standard reflectance model and illuminant estimation. Journal of Optical Society of America A, Vol. 6, No.4, 576–584.Google ScholarCross Ref
    28. TSUMURA N., KAWABUCHI M., HANEISHI H., AND MIYAKE Y. 2001. Mapping pigmentation in human skin from multi-channel visible spectrum image by inverse optical scattering technique. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 45, 5, 444–450.Google Scholar
    29. TSUMURA N., HANEISHI H., AND MIYAKE Y. 1999. Independent component analysis of skin color image. Journal of Optical Society of America A 16, 9, 2169–2176.Google ScholarCross Ref

ACM Digital Library Publication: