“GRAINS: Generative Recursive Autoencoders for INdoor Scenes” by Li, Patil, Xu, Chaudhuri, Khan, et al. …

  • ©Manyi Li, Akshay Gadi Patil, Kai Xu, Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Owais Khan, Ariel Shamir, Changhe Tu, Baoquan Chen, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Hao Zhang

Conference:


Type:


Title:

    GRAINS: Generative Recursive Autoencoders for INdoor Scenes

Session/Category Title:   Off the Deep End


Presenter(s)/Author(s):



Abstract:


    We present a generative neural network that enables us to generate plausible 3D indoor scenes in large quantities and varieties, easily and highly efficiently. Our key observation is that indoor scene structures are inherently hierarchical. Hence, our network is not convolutional; it is a recursive neural network, or RvNN. Using a dataset of annotated scene hierarchies, we train a variational recursive autoencoder, or RvNN-VAE, which performs scene object grouping during its encoding phase and scene generation during decoding. Specifically, a set of encoders are recursively applied to group 3D objects based on support, surround, and co-occurrence relations in a scene, encoding information about objects’ spatial properties, semantics, and relative positioning with respect to other objects in the hierarchy. By training a variational autoencoder (VAE), the resulting fixed-length codes roughly follow a Gaussian distribution. A novel 3D scene can be generated hierarchically by the decoder from a randomly sampled code from the learned distribution. We coin our method GRAINS, for Generative Recursive Autoencoders for INdoor Scenes. We demonstrate the capability of GRAINS to generate plausible and diverse 3D indoor scenes and compare with existing methods for 3D scene synthesis. We show applications of GRAINS including 3D scene modeling from 2D layouts, scene editing, and semantic scene segmentation via PointNet whose performance is boosted by the large quantity and variety of 3D scenes generated by our method.

References:


    1. Martin Bokeloh, Michael Wand, and Hans-Peter Seidel. 2010. A connection between partial symmetry and inverse procedural modeling. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH.
    2. Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Evangelos Kalogerakis, Leonidas Guibas, and Vladlen Koltun. 2011. Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 30 (2011), 35.
    3. Kang Chen, Yu-Kun Lai, Yu-Xin Wu, Ralph Martin, and Shi-Min Hu. 2014. Automatic semantic modeling of indoor scenes from low-quality RGB-D data using contextual information. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 6 (2014), 208:1–12.
    4. David Duvenaud, Dougal Maclaurin, Jorge Aguilera-Iparraguirre, Rafael Gómez-Bombarelli, Timothy Hirzel, Al’an Aspuru-Guzik, and Ryan P. Adams. 2015. Convolutional networks on graphs for learning molecular fingerprints. In Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS).
    5. Noa Fish, Melinos Averkiou, Oliver van Kaick, Olga Sorkine-Hornung, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Niloy J. Mitra. 2014. Meta-representation of shape families. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 33, 4 (2014), 34.
    6. Matthew Fisher, Yangyan Li, Manolis Savva, Pat Hanrahan, and Matthias Nießner. 2015. Activity-centric scene synthesis for functional 3D scene modeling. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 6 (2015), 212:1–10.
    7. Matthew Fisher, Daniel Ritchie, Manolis Savva, Thomas Funkhouser, and Pat Hanrahan. 2012. Example-based synthesis of 3D object arrangements. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6 (2012), 135:1–11.
    8. Matthew Fisher, Manolis Savva, and Pat Hanrahan. 2011. Characterizing structural relationships in scenes using graph kernels. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 30, 4 (2011), 34.
    9. Qiang Fu, Xiaowu Chen, Xiaotian Wang, Sijia Wen, Bin Zhou, and F. U. Hongbo. 2017. Adaptive synthesis of indoor scenes via activity-associated object relation graphs. ACM Trans. Graph. (Proc. of SIGGRAPH Asia) 36, 6 (2017), 201.
    10. Rohit Girdhar, David F. Fouhey, Mikel Rodriguez, and Abhinav Gupta. 2016. Learning a predictable and generative vector representation for objects. In European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV).
    11. Ian Goodfellow, Jean Pouget-Abadie, Mehdi Mirza, Bing Xu, David Warde-Farley, Sherjil Ozair, Aaron Courville, and Yoshua Bengio. 2014. Generative adversarial nets. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. 2672–2680.
    12. Mikael Henaff, Joan Bruna, and Yann LeCun. 2015. Deep convolutional networks on graph-structured data. CoRR abs/1506.05163 (2015). Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05163.
    13. Haibin Huang, Evangelos Kalogerakis, and Benjamin Marlin. 2015. Analysis and synthesis of 3D shape families via deep-learned generative models of surfaces. Comput. Graph. Forum (SGP) 34, 5 (2015), 25–38.
    14. Evangelos Kalogerakis, Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Daphne Koller, and Vladlen Koltun. 2012. A probabilistic model for component-based shape synthesis. ACM Trans. Graph. (Proc. of SIGGRAPH) 31, 4 (2012), 55.
    15. Z. Sadeghipour Kermani, Zicheng Liao, Ping Tan, and H. Zhang. 2016. Learning 3D scene synthesis from annotated RGB-D images. In Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 35. Wiley Online Library, 197–206.
    16. Vladimir G. Kim, Wilmot Li, Niloy J. Mitra, Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Stephen DiVerdi, and Thomas Funkhouser. 2013. Learning part-based templates from large collections of 3D shapes. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 4 (2013), 70:1–12.
    17. Diederik P. Kingma and Jimmy Ba. 2014. Adam: A method for stochastic optimization. arXiv preprint arXiv:1412.6980 (2014).
    18. Diederik P. Kingma and Max Welling. 2013. Auto-encoding variational Bayes. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6114 (2013).
    19. Jun Li, Kai Xu, Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Ersin Yumer, Hao Zhang, and Leonidas Guibas. 2017. GRASS: Generative recursive autoencoders for shape structures. ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 4 (2017), 52:1–14.
    20. Rui Ma, Akshay Gadi Patil, Matthew Fisher, Manyi Li, Sören Pirk, Binh-Son Hua, Sai-Kit Yeung, Xin Tong, Leonidas Guibas, and Hao Zhang. 2018. Language-driven synthesis of 3D scenes from scene databases. ACM Trans. Graph. (Proc. SIGGRAPH ASIA) 37, 6 (2018), 212:1–16.
    21. Rui Ma, Honghua Li, Changqing Zou, Zicheng Liao, Xin Tong, and Hao Zhang. 2016. Action-driven 3D indoor scene evolution. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 6 (2016), 173:1–13.
    22. Paul Merrell, Eric Schkufza, Zeyang Li, Maneesh Agrawala, and Vladlen Koltun. 2011. Interactive furniture layout using interior design guidelines. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 4 (2011), 87:1–10.
    23. Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert. 1969. Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. MIT Press.
    24. Pascal Müller, Peter Wonka, Simon Haegler, Andreas Ulmer, and Luc Van Gool. 2006. Procedural modeling of buildings. In ACM Transactions On Graphics (TOG) 25 (2006), 614–623.
    25. Mathias Niepert, Mohamed Ahmed, and Konstantin Kutzkov. 2016. Learning convolutional neural networks for graphs. In International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML).
    26. Adam Paszke, Sam Gross, Soumith Chintala, Gregory Chanan, Edward Yang, Zachary DeVito, Zeming Lin, Alban Desmaison, Luca Antiga, and Adam Lerer. 2017. Automatic differentiation in Pytorch. In Neural Information Processing Systems-Workshop (NIPS-W).
    27. Charles R. Qi, Hao Su, Kaichun Mo, and Leonidas J. Guibas. 2017. PointNet: Deep learning on point sets for 3D classification and segmentation. In Proc. of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 652–660.
    28. Siyuan Qi, Yixin Zhu, Siyuan Huang, Chenfanfu Jiang, and Song-Chun Zhu. 2018. Human-centric indoor scene synthesis using stochastic grammar. In Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’18).
    29. Richard Socher, Brody Huval, Bharath Bhat, Christopher D. Manning, and Andrew Y. Ng. 2012. Convolutional-recursive deep learning for 3D object classification. In Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS).
    30. Richard Socher, Cliff C. Lin, Andrew Y. Ng, and Christopher D. Manning. 2011. Parsing natural scenes and natural language with recursive neural networks. In International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML).
    31. Shuran Song, Fisher Yu, Andy Zeng, Angel X. Chang, Manolis Savva, and Thomas Funkhouser. 2017. Semantic scene completion from a single depth image. In IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.
    32. Jerry Talton, Lingfeng Yang, Ranjitha Kumar, Maxine Lim, Noah Goodman, and Radomír Měch. 2012. Learning design patterns with Bayesian grammar induction. In ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST). 63–74.
    33. Aäron van den Oord, Sander Dieleman, Heiga Zen, Karen Simonyan, Oriol Vinyals, Alex Graves, Nal Kalchbrenner, Andrew W. Senior, and Koray Kavukcuoglu. 2016a. WaveNet: A generative model for raw audio. CoRR abs/1609.03499 (2016). Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1609.03499.
    34. Aäron van den Oord, Nal Kalchbrenner, and Koray Kavukcuoglu. 2016b. Pixel recurrent neural networks. CoRR abs/1601.06759 (2016). Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.06759.
    35. Kai Wang, Manolis Savva, Angel X. Chang, and Daniel Ritchie. 2018. Deep convolutional priors for indoor scene synthesis. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 37, 4 (2018), 70.
    36. Yanzhen Wang, Kai Xu, Jun Li, Hao Zhang, Ariel Shamir, Ligang Liu, Zhiquan Cheng, and Yueshan Xiong. 2011. Symmetry hierarchy of man-made objects. Comput. Graph. Forum (Eurographics) 30, 2 (2011), 287–296.
    37. Paul J. Werbos. 1974. Beyond Regression: New Tools for Predicting and Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences. Ph.D. Dissertation. Harvard University.
    38. Jiajun Wu, Chengkai Zhang, Tianfan Xue, William T. Freeman, and Joshua B. Tenenbaum. 2016. Learning a probabilistic latent space of object shapes via 3D generative-adversarial modeling. In Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS).
    39. Zhirong Wu, Shuran Song, Aditya Khosla, Fisher Yu, Linguang Zhang, Xiaoou Tang, and Jianxiong Xiao. 2015. 3D ShapeNets: A deep representation for volumetric shapes. In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR).
    40. Kun Xu, Kang Chen, Hongbo Fu, Wei-Lun Sun, and Shi-Min Hu. 2013. Sketch2Scene: Sketch-based co-retrieval and co-placement of 3D models. ACM Trans. Graph. (TOG) 32, 4 (2013), 123.
    41. Kai Xu, Hao Zhang, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Baoquan Chen. 2012. Fit and diverse: Set evolution for inspiring 3D shape galleries. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4 (2012), 57:1–10.
    42. Lap-Fai Yu, Sai Kit Yeung, Chi-Keung Tang, Demetri Terzopoulos, Tony F. Chan, and Stanley Osher. 2011. Make it home: Automatic optimization of furniture arrangement. ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 4 (2011), 86:1–12.

ACM Digital Library Publication:



Overview Page: