“CurviSlicer: slightly curved slicing for 3-axis printers” by Etienne, Ray, Panozzo, Hornus, Wang, et al. …

  • ©Jimmy Etienne, Nicolas Ray, Daniele Panozzo, Samuel Hornus, Charlie C. L. Wang, Jonàs Martínez, Sara McMains, Marc Alexa, Brian Wyvill, and Sylvain Lefebvre




    CurviSlicer: slightly curved slicing for 3-axis printers

Session/Category Title:   Fabrication



    Most additive manufacturing processes fabricate objects by stacking planar layers of solidified material. As a result, produced parts exhibit a so-called staircase effect, which results from sampling slanted surfaces with parallel planes. Using thinner slices reduces this effect, but it always remains visible where layers almost align with the input surfaces.In this research we exploit the ability of some additive manufacturing processes to deposit material slightly out of plane to dramatically reduce these artifacts. We focus in particular on the widespread Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology, since most printers in this category can deposit along slightly curved paths, under deposition slope and thickness constraints.Our algorithm curves the layers, making them either follow the natural slope of the input surface or on the contrary, make them intersect the surfaces at a steeper angle thereby improving the sampling quality. Rather than directly computing curved layers, our algorithm optimizes for a deformation of the model which is then sliced with a standard planar approach. We demonstrate that this approach enables us to encode all fabrication constraints, including the guarantee of generating collision-free toolpaths, in a convex optimization that can be solved using a QP solver.We produce a variety of models and compare print quality between curved deposition and planar slicing.


    1. Daniel Ahlers. 2018. 3D Printing of Nonplanar Layers for Smooth Surface Generation. Master’s thesis. University of Hamburg.Google Scholar
    2. Marc Alexa, Kristian Hildebrand, and Sylvain Lefebvre. 2017. Optimal discrete slicing. ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 1 (2017), 1 — 16. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Robert J.A. Allen and Richard S. Trask. 2015. An experimental demonstration of effective Curved Layer Fused Filament Fabrication utilising a parallel deposition robot. Additive Manufacturing 8 (2015), 78–87.Google ScholarCross Ref
    4. Marco Attene. 2015. Shapes In a Box: Disassembling 3D Objects for Efficient Packing and Fabrication. Comput. Graph. Forum 34, 8 (2015), 64–76. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Debapriya Chakraborty, B. Aneesh Reddy, and A. Roy Choudhury. 2008. Extruder Path Generation for Curved Layer Fused Deposition Modeling. Comput. Aided Des. 40, 2 (2008), 235–243. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. W. Cheng, J.Y.H. Fuh, A.Y.C. Nee, Y.S. Wong, H.T. Loh, and T. Miyazawa. 1995. Multi-objective optimization of part- building orientation in stereolithography. Rapid Prototyp J. 1, 4 (1995), 12–23.Google ScholarCross Ref
    7. Chengkai Dai, Charlie C. L. Wang, Chenming Wu, Sylvain Lefebvre, Guoxin Fang, and Yong-Jin Liu. 2018. Support-free Volume Printing by Multi-axis Motion. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 4 (2018), 134:1–134:14. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. André Dolenc and Ismo Mäkelä. 1994. Slicing procedures for layered manufacturing techniques. Comput. Aided Des. 26, 2 (1994), 119–126.Google ScholarCross Ref
    9. Ben Ezair, Saul Fuhrmann, and Gershon Elber. 2018. Volumetric covering print-paths for additive manufacturing of 3D models. Comput. Aided Des. 100 (2018), 1 — 13.Google ScholarCross Ref
    10. J. Gregson, A. Sheffer, and E. Zhang. 2011. All-Hex Mesh Generation via Volumetric PolyCube Deformation. Comput. Graph. Forum 30, 5 (2011), 1407–1416.Google ScholarCross Ref
    11. Gurobi. 2018. Gurobi Optimizer Reference Manual, Gurobi Optimization, LLC. Mohammad T Hayasi and Bahram Asiabanpour. 2013. A new adaptive slicing approach for the fully dense freeform fabrication (FDFF) process. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing 24, 4 (2013), 683–694. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Kristian Hildebrand, Bernd Bickel, and Marc Alexa. 2013. Orthogonal slicing for additive manufacturing. Computers & Graphics 37, 6 (2013), 669 — 675. Shape Modeling International (SMI) Conference 2013. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. R.L. Hope, R.N. Roth, and P.A. Jacobs. 1997. Adaptive slicing with sloping layer surfaces. Rapid Prototyp J. 3, 3 (1997), 89–98.Google ScholarCross Ref
    14. Ruizhen Hu, Honghua Li, Hao Zhang, and Daniel Cohen-Or. 2014. Approximate Pyramidal Shape Decomposition. ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 6 (2014), 213:1–213:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Yixin Hu, Qingnan Zhou, Xifeng Gao, Alec Jacobson, Denis Zorin, and Daniele Panozzo. 2018. Tetrahedral Meshing in the Wild. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 4 (2018), 60:1–60:14. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. B Huang and S Singamneni. 2012. Alternate Slicing and Deposition Strategies for Fused Deposition Modelling of Light Curved Parts. J. of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 55, 2 (2012), 511–517.Google Scholar
    17. B. Huang and S. Singamneni. 2015. A Mixed-Layer Approach Combining Both Flat and Curved Layer Slicing for Fused Deposition Modelling. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 229, 12 (2015), 2238–2249.Google ScholarCross Ref
    18. Yijiang Huang, Juyong Zhang, Xin Hu, Guoxian Song, Zhongyuan Liu, Lei Yu, and Ligang Liu. 2016. FrameFab: Robotic Fabrication of Frame Shapes. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 6 (2016), 224:1–224:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Steven Keating and Neri Oxman. 2013. Compound fabrication: A multi-functional robotic platform for digital design and fabrication. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 29, 6 (2013), 439–448. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Prashant Kulkarni and Debasish Dutta. 1996. An accurate slicing procedure for layered manufacturing. Comput. Aided Des. 28, 9 (1996), 683 — 697.Google ScholarCross Ref
    21. Sungwoo Lim, Richard A Buswell, Philip J Valentine, Daniel Piker, Simon A Austin, and Xavier De Kestelier. 2016. Modelling Curved-Layered Printing Paths for Fabricating Large-Scale Construction Components. Additive Manufacturing (2016).Google Scholar
    22. Marco Livesu, Stefano Ellero, Jonàs Martínez, Sylvain Lefebvre, and Marco Attene. 2017. From 3D models to 3D prints: an overview of the processing pipeline. Computer Graphics Forum 36, 2 (2017). Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Linjie Luo, Ilya Baran, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, and Wojciech Matusik. 2012. Chopper: Partitioning Models into 3D-printable Parts. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6 (2012). Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. K Mani, P Kulkarni, and D Dutta. 1999. Region-based adaptive slicing. Comput. Aided Des. 31, 5 (1999), 317 — 333.Google ScholarCross Ref
    25. H. S. Masood, W. Rattanawong, and P. Iovenitti. 2000. Part Build Orientations Based on Volumetric Error in Fused Deposition Modelling. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 16, 3 (2000), 162–168.Google ScholarCross Ref
    26. Stefanie Mueller, Sangha Im, Serafima Gurevich, Alexander Teibrich, Lisa Pfisterer, François Guimbretière, and Patrick Baudisch. 2014. WirePrint: 3D Printed Previews for Fast Prototyping. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. 273–280. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Y. Pan, C. Zhou, Y. Chen, and J. Partanen. 2014. Multitool and multi-axis computer numerically controlled accumulation for fabricating conformal features on curved surfaces. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 136, 3 (2014).Google ScholarCross Ref
    28. PM Pandey, N Venkata Reddy, and Sanjay G Dhande. 2003. Slicing procedures in layered manufacturing: a review. Rapid Prototyp J. 9, 5 (2003), 274–288.Google ScholarCross Ref
    29. Huaishu Peng, Rundong Wu, Steve Marschner, and François Guimbretière. 2016. On-The-Fly Print: Incremental Printing While Modelling. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Google ScholarDigital Library
    30. Emmanuel Sabourin, Scott A Houser, and Jan Helge Bøhn. 1996. Adaptive slicing using stepwise uniform refinement. Rapid Prototyp J. 2, 4 (1996), 20–26.Google ScholarCross Ref
    31. Emmanuel Sabourin, Scott A. Houser, and Jan Helge Bøhn. 1997. Accurate exterior, fast interior layered manufacturing. Rapid Prototyp J. 3, 2 (1997), 44–52.Google ScholarCross Ref
    32. Sarat Singamneni, Asimava Roychoudhury, Olaf Diegel, and Bin Huang. 2012. Modeling and evaluation of curved layer fused deposition. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 212, 1 (2012), 27–35.Google ScholarCross Ref
    33. Hai-Chuan Song, Nicolas Ray, Dmitry Sokolov, and Sylvain Lefebvre. 2017. Anti-aliasing for Fused Filament Deposition. Comput. Aided Des. 89, C (2017), 25–34. Google ScholarDigital Library
    34. Peng Song, Bailin Deng, Ziqi Wang, Zhichao Dong, Wei Li, Chi-Wing Fu, and Ligang Liu. 2016. CofiFab: Coarse-to-fine Fabrication of Large 3D Objects. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 4 (2016), 45:1–45:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    35. Kamesh Tata, Georges Fadel, Amit Bagchi, and Nadim Aziz. 1998. Efficient slicing for layered manufacturing. Rapid Prototyp J. 4, 4 (1998), 151–167.Google ScholarCross Ref
    36. Llewellyn-Jones Thomas, Allen Robert, and Trask Richard. 2016. Curved layer fused filament fabrication using automated tool-path generation. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing 3 (2016), 236–243.Google Scholar
    37. K Thrimurthulu, Pulak M Pandey, and N Venkata Reddy. 2004. Optimum part deposition orientation in fused deposition modeling. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 44, 6 (2004), 585 — 594.Google ScholarCross Ref
    38. Justin Tyberg and Jan Helge Bøhn. 1998. Local Adaptive Slicing. Rapid Prototyp J. 4, 3 (1998), 118–127.Google ScholarCross Ref
    39. Justin Tyberg and Jan Helge Bøhn. 1999. FDM systems and local adaptive slicing. Materials & design 20, 2 (1999), 77–82.Google Scholar
    40. Nobuyuki Umetani and Ryan Schmidt. 2013. Cross-sectional Structural Analysis for 3D Printing Optimization. In SIGGRAPH Asia 2013 Technical Briefs (SA ’13). 5:1–5:4. Google ScholarDigital Library
    41. Weiming Wang, Haiyuan Chao, Jing Tong, Zhouwang Yang, Xin Tong, Hang Li, Xiuping Liu, and Ligang Liu. 2015. Saliency-Preserving Slicing Optimization for Effective 3D Printing. Comput. Graph. Forum 34, 6 (2015), 148–160. Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. W. M. Wang, C. Zanni, and L. Kobbelt. 2016. Improved Surface Quality in 3D Printing by Optimizing the Printing Direction. In Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the European Association for Computer Graphics (EG ’16). 59–70. Google ScholarDigital Library
    43. Chenming Wu, Chengkai Dai, Guoxin Fang, Yong-Jin Liu, and Charlie C. L. Wang. 2017. RoboFDM: a robotic system for support-free fabrication using FDM. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation.Google Scholar
    44. Rundong Wu, Huaishu Peng, François Guimbretière, and Steve Marschner. 2016. Printing Arbitrary Meshes with a 5DOF Wireframe Printer. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 4 (2016), 101:1–101:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    45. Xiaoting Zhang, Xinyi Le, Athina Panotopoulou, Emily Whiting, and Charlie C. L. Wang. 2015. Perceptual Models of Preference in 3D Printing Direction. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 6 (2015), 215:1–215:12. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: