“blue-c: a spatially immersive display and 3D video portal for telepresence” by Gross, Würmlin, Naef, Lamboray, Spagno, et al. …

  • ©Markus Gross, Stephan Würmlin, Martin Naef, Edouard Lamboray, Christian Spagno, Andreas Kunz, Esther Koller-Meier, Tomas Svoboda, Luc Van Gool, Silke Lang, Kai Strehlke, Andrew Vande Moere, and Oliver Staadt


    We present blue-c, a new immersive projection and 3D video acquisition environment for virtual design and collaboration. It combines simultaneous acquisition of multiple live video streams with advanced 3D projection technology in a CAVE™-like environment, creating the impression of total immersion. The blue-c portal currently consists of three rectangular projection screens that are built from glass panels containing liquid crystal layers. These screens can be switched from a whitish opaque state (for projection) to a transparent state (for acquisition), which allows the video cameras to “look through” the walls. Our projection technology is based on active stereo using two LCD projectors per screen. The projectors are synchronously shuttered along with the screens, the stereo glasses, active illumination devices, and the acquisition hardware. From multiple video streams, we compute a 3D video representation of the user in real time. The resulting video inlays are integrated into a networked virtual environment. Our design is highly scalable, enabling blue-c to connect to portals with less sophisticated hardware.


    1. AGRAWALA, M., BEERS, A. C., FRÖHLICH, B., HANRAHAN, P. M., MCDOWALL, I., AND BOLAS, M. 1997. The two-user responsive workbench: Support for collaboration through independent views of a shared space. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97, pages 327–332, ACM SIGGRAPH / Addison Wesley.]] Google Scholar
    2. BUEHLER, C., BOSSE, M., MCMILLAN, L., GORTLER, S., AND COHEN, M. 2001. Unstructured lumigraph rendering. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001, pages 425–432. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH / New York.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. CRUZ-NEIRA, C., SANDIN, D. J., AND DEFANTI, T. A. 1993. Surround screen projection-based virtual reality: The design and implementation of the cave. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, pages 135–142, ACM SIGGRAPH / Addison Wesley.]] Google Scholar
    4. DAVIS, J. W. AND BOBICK, A. F. 1998. Sideshow: A silhouette-based interactive dual-screen environment. Technical Report 457, MIT Media Lab.]]Google Scholar
    5. DEBEVEC, P., WENGER, A., TCHOU, C., GARDNER, A., WAESE, J., AND HAWKINS, T. 2002. A lighting reproduction approach to live-action compositing. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002, pages 547–556. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH / New York.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. GIBBS, S. J., ARAPIS, C., AND BREITENEDER, C. J. 1999. TELEPORT – towards immersive copresence. Multimedia Systems, 7(3):214–221. Springer.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. KAUFF, P. AND SCHREER, O. 2002. An immersive 3D video-conferencing system using shared virtual team user environments. In Proceedings of CVE’02, pages 105–112. ACM Press.]] Google Scholar
    8. KRÜGER, W., BOHN, C.-A., FRÖHLICH, B., SCHÜTH, H., STRAUSS, W., AND WESCHE, G. 1995. The responsive workbench: A virtual work environment. IEEE Computer, pages 42–48. IEEE Computer Society Press.]] Google Scholar
    9. LAMPERT, C. 1999. The world of large-area glazing and displays. In Switchable Materials and Flat Panel Displays, pages 2–11. SPIE.]]Google Scholar
    10. LAURENTINI, A. 1994. The visual hull concept for silhouette-based image understanding. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 16(2):150–162. IEEE Computer Society Press.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. MATUSIK, W., BUEHLER, C., AND MCMILLAN, L. 2001. Polyhedral visual hulls for real-time rendering. In Proceedings of Twelfth Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pages 115–125. Springer.]] Google Scholar
    12. MATUSIK, W., BUEHLER, C., RASKAR, R., GORTLER, S. J., AND MCMILLAN, L. 2000. Image-based visual hulls. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000, pages 369–374. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH / New York.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. MESTER, R., AACH, T., AND DÜMBGEN, L. 2001. Illumination-invariant change detection using statistical colinearity criterion. In DAGM2001, number 2191 in LNCS, pages 170–177. Springer.]] Google Scholar
    14. MOEZZI, S., KATKERE, A., KURAMURA, D. Y., AND JAIN, R. 1996. Immersive Video. In Proceedings of the 1996 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, pages 17–24. IEEE Computer Society Press.]] Google Scholar
    15. MULLIGAN, J. AND DANIILIDIS, K. 2000. View-independent scene acquisition for tele-presence. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, pages 105–110. IEEE Computer Society Press.]]Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. NAEF, M., LAMBORAY, E., STAADT, O., AND GROSS, M. 2003. The blue-c distributed scene graph. In Proceedings of the IPT/EGVE Workshop 2003. ACM Press. To appear.]] Google Scholar
    17. NAEF, M., STAADT, O., AND GROSS, M. 2002. Spatialized audio rendering for immersive virtual environments. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology 2002, pages 65–72. ACM Press.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. NARAYANAN, P. J., RANDER, P., AND KANADE, T. 1998. Constructing virtual worlds using dense stereo. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision ICCV 98, pages 3–10. IEEE Computer Society Press.]] Google Scholar
    19. PERLIN, K., PAXIA, S., AND KOLLIN, J. S. 2000. An autostereoscopic display. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, pages 319–326. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH / Addison Wesley.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. POLLARD, S. AND HAYES, S. 1998. View synthesis by edge transfer with application to the generation of immersive video objects. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pages 91–98. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH, New York.]] Google Scholar
    21. POLLEFEYS, M., KOCH, R., AND VAN GOOL, L. 1999. Self-calibration and metric reconstruction inspite of varying and unknown intrinsic camera parameters. International Journal of Computer Vision, 32(1):7–25.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. RASKAR, R., WELCH, G., CUTTS, M., LAKE, A., STESIN, L., AND FUCHS, H. 1998. The office of the future: A unified approach to image-based modeling and spatially immersive displays. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, pages 179–188. ACM SIGGRAPH / Addison Wesley.]] Google Scholar
    23. REINHARD, E., ASHIKHMIN, M., GOOCH, B., AND SHIRLEY, P. 2001. Color transfer between images. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(4):34–41. IEEE Computer Society Press.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. ROHLF, J. AND HELMAN, J. 1994. IRIS Performer: A high performance multiprocessing toolkit for real-time 3d graphics. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 94, pages 381–395. ACM SIGGRAPH / Addison Wesley.]] Google Scholar
    25. SADAGIC, A., TOWLES, H., LANIER, J., FUCHS, H., VAN DAM, A., DANIILIDIS, K., MULLIGAN, J., HOLDEN, L., AND ZELEZNIK, B. 2001. National tele-immersion initiative: Towards compelling tele-immersive collaborative environments. Presentation given at Medicine meets Virtual Reality 2001 Conference.]]Google Scholar
    26. SCHMIDT, D.. Real-time CORBA with TAO (The ACE ORB). http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~schmidt/TAO.html.]]Google Scholar
    27. SPAGNO, C. AND KUNZ, A. 2003. Construction of a three-sided immersive telecollaboration system. In Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2003 (VR 2003), pages 37–44. IEEE Computer Society Press.]] Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. SUBRAMANIAN, S., RAJAN, V., KEENAN, D., SANDIN, D., DEFANTI, T., AND JOHNSON, A. 2002. A realistic video avatar system for networked virtual environments. In Proceedings of Seventh Annual Immersive Projection Technology Symposium.]]Google Scholar
    29. VEDULA, S., BAKER, S., AND KANADE, T. 2002. Spatio-temporal view interpolation. In Proceedings of the 13th ACM Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pages 65–75. ACM Press.]] Google Scholar
    30. WÜRMLIN, S., LAMBORAY, E., STAADT, O. G., AND GROSS, M. H. 2002. 3D video recorder. In Proceedings of Pacific Graphics 2002, pages 325–334. IEEE Press.]] Google Scholar
    31. WÜRMLIN, S., LAMBORAY, E., AND GROSS, M. H. 2003. 3D video fragments: Dynamic point samples for real-time free-viewpoint video. Technical Report No. 397, Institute of Scientific Computing, ETH Zurich.]]Google Scholar
    32. ZWICKER, M., PFISTER, H., VANBAAR, J., AND GROSS, M. 2001. Surface splatting. In SIGGRAPH 2001 Conference Proceedings, pages 371–378. ACM Press / ACM SIGGRAPH / New York.]] Google Scholar

ACM Digital Library Publication: