“An interactive 3D toolkit for constructing 3D widgets” by Zeleznik, Herndon, Robbins, Huang, Meyer, et al. …

  • ©Robert (Bob) Zeleznik, Kenneth P. Herndon, Daniel C. Robbins, Nate Huang, Tom Meyer, Noah Parker, and John F. Hughes

Conference:


Type:


Title:

    An interactive 3D toolkit for constructing 3D widgets

Presenter(s)/Author(s):



Abstract:


    Today’s user interfaces for most 3D graphics applications still depend heavily on 2D GUIs and keyboard input. There have been
    several recent attempts both to extend these user interfaces into 3D
    and to describe intermediary 3D widgets 1 that control application
    objects [3; 4; 5; 7; 13; 15]. Even though this style of interaction is
    a straightforward extension of interaction through intermediary 2D
    widgets such as dials or sliders, we know of no efforts to develop
    interactive 3D toolkits akin to UIMX or Garnet [11].
    The Brown Graphics Group has had considerable experience using its Unified Graphics Architecture (UGA) system [16] to script
    3D widgets such as deformation racks [14], interactive shadows [9],
    parameterized models, and other constrained 3D geometries. Using this experience, we have developed an interactive toolkit to
    facilitate the visual programming of the geometry and behavior of
    such interactive models. The toolkit provides both a core set of 3D
    widget primitives for constructing interactive behaviors based on
    constrained affine transformations, and an interactive 3D interface
    for combining these primitives into more complex widgets.
    This video paper describes the fundamental concepts of the
    toolkit and its core set of primitives. In particular, we describe
    (i) the conceptual structure of the primitives, (ii) the criteria used
    to select a particular primitive widget set that would be expressive
    enough to let us construct a wide range of interactive 3D objects,
    and (iii) the constraint relationships among the primitives.

References:


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    3. Eric A. Bier. Snap-dragging in three dimensions. Computer Graphics (1990 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), 24(2):193-204, March 1990.
    4. Stuart K. Card, George G. Robertson, and Jock D. Mackinlay. The information visualizer, an information workspace. In Proceedings of ACM CHI’ 91 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 181-188, 1991.
    5. D. Brookshire Conner, Scott S. Snibbe, Kenneth E Herndon, Daniel C. Robbins, Robert C. Zeleznik, and Andries van Dam. Three-dimensional widgets. Computer Graphics (1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), 25(2):183-188, March 1992.
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    9. Kenneth P. Herndon, Robert C. Zeleznik, Daniel C. Robbins, D. Brookshire Conner, Scott S. Snibbe, and Andries van Dam. Interactive shadows. 1992 UIST Proceedings, pages 1-6, November 1992.
    10. Michael Kass. CONDOR: Constraint-based dataflow. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’92 Proceedings), 26(2):321- 330, July 1992.
    11. Brad A. Myers, Dario A. Guise, Roger B. Dannenberg, Brad Vander Zanden, David S. Kosbie, Edward Pervin, Andrew Mickish, and Philippe Marchal. GARNET comprehensive support for graphical, highly interactive user interfaces. IEEE COMPUTER magazine, pages 71-85, November 1990.
    12. Open Software Foundation. OSF/Motif Reference Guide.
    13. Steve Sistare. Graphical interaction techniques in constraintbased geometric modeling. In Steve MacKay and Evelyn M. Kidd, editors, Graphics Interface ’91 Proceedings, pages 161-164. Canadian Man-Computer Communications Society, March 1991.
    14. Scott S. Snibbe, Kenneth E Herndon, Daniel C. Robbins, D. Brookshire Conner, and Andries van Dam. Using deformations to explore 3d widget design. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’92 Proceedings),26(2):351-352, July 1992.
    15. Paul S. Strauss and Rikk Carey. An object-oriented 3d graphics toolkit. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’92 Proceedings), 26(2):341-349, July 1992.
    16. Robert C. Zeleznik, D. Brookshire Conner, Matthias M. Wloka, Daniel G. Aliaga, Nathan T. Huang, Philip M. Hubbard, Brian Knep, Henry Kaufman, John F. Hughes, and Andries van Dam. An object-oriented framework for the integration of interactive animation techniques. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’91 Proceedings), 25(4):105-112, July 1991.


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