“A virtual environment and model of the eye for surgical simulation” by Sagar, Bullivant, Mallinson and Hunter

  • ©Mark Sagar, David Bullivant, Gordon D. Mallinson, and Peter J. Hunter




    A virtual environment and model of the eye for surgical simulation



    An anatomically detailed 3-D computer graphic model of the eye and surrounding face within a virtual environment has been implemented for use in a surgical simulator. The simulator forms part of a teleoperated micro-surgical robotic system being developed for eye surgery. The model has been designed to both visually and mechanically simulate features of the human eye by coupling computer graphic realism with finite element analysis.The paper gives an overview of the system with emphasis on the graphical modelling techniques and a computationally efficient framework for representing anatomical details of the eye and for finite element analysis of the mechanical properties. Examples of realistic images coupled to large deformation finite element model of the cornea are presented. These images can be rendered sufficiently fast for the virtual reality application.


    1. Baillie, J., Jowell, P., Evangelou, W. and Bickel, W. Use of computer graphics simulation for teaching of flexible sigmoidoscopy. Endoscopy 23, (1991), 126-129.
    2. Chen, D.T. and Zeltzer, D. Pump it Up: Computer animation of a biomechanically based model of muscle using the finite element method. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’92 (Chicago, Illinois, July 26- 31, 1992), In Computer Graphics, 26, 2, (July 1992), 89-98.
    3. Delp, S. Loan, P., Hoy, M., Zajac, F., Fisher, S. and Rosen, J. An Interactive graphics-based model of the lower extremity to study orthopaedic surgical procedures. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 37, 8, (1990).
    4. Hasimoto, D., Dohi, T., Tzuzuki, M., Horiuchi, Y., Chinzei, K., Suzuki, M. and Idezuki, Y. Development of a computer aided surgery system: Three dimensional graphic reconstruction for treatment of liver cancer. Surgery, (1991), 589-596.
    5. Hodges, L.F. Time multiplexed stereoscopic computer graphics. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, (March 1992), 20-30.
    6. Huang, T., Bisarnsin, T., Schachar, R.A., Black, T.D. Corneal curvature change due to structural alternation by radial keratotomy. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 110, (1988), 249-253.
    7. Hunter, P.J. and Smaill, B.H. The analysis of cardiac function: a continuum approach. Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 52, (1989) 101- 164.
    8. Hunter, I.W., Jones, L.A., Sagar, M.A., Doukoglou, T.D., Lafontaine, S.R., Charette, P.G., Mallinson G.D., Hunter, P.J. A teleoperated microsurgical robot and associated virtual environment for eye surgery, Presence, (Accepted 1994)
    9. Magnenat-Thalmann, N. and Thalmann, D. Synthetic Actors in Computer Generated 3D films. Springer-Verlag, (1990).
    10. Maurice, D.M. Mechanics of the cornea. The Cornea: Transactions of the World Congress on the Cornea III. Ed. H. Dwight Cavanagh. Raven Press Ltd., (1988).
    11. Oppenheimer, P.E. Realtime design and animation of fractal plants and trees. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’86 (New York). In Computer Graphics 20, 4, (1986), 55-64.
    12. Pieper, S., Rosen, J. and Zeltzer, D. Interactive graphics for plastic surgery, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ’92 (Chicago, Illinois, July 26- 31, 1992), In Computer Graphics, 26, 2, (July 1992), 127-134.
    13. Pinksy, P.M.,Datye, D.V. A Microstructurally based finite element model of the incised human cornea. J. Biomechanics 24, 10, (1991), 907-922.
    14. Sims, D. The Point where Lines Converge. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 13, July (1993), 7-9.
    15. Young, A.A. and Hunter, P.J. Epicardial surface estimation from coronary angiograms. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 47, (1989) 111-127.

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: