“Towards virtual reality infinite walking: dynamic saccadic redirection” by Sun, Patney, Wei, Shapira, Lu, et al. …

  • ©Qi Sun, Anjul Patney, Li-Yi Wei, Omer Shapira, Jingwan Lu, and Paul Asente



Entry Number: 67


    Towards virtual reality infinite walking: dynamic saccadic redirection

Session/Category Title:   Interaction/VR




    Redirected walking techniques can enhance the immersion and visual-vestibular comfort of virtual reality (VR) navigation, but are often limited by the size, shape, and content of the physical environments.We propose a redirected walking technique that can apply to small physical environments with static or dynamic obstacles. Via a head- and eye-tracking VR headset, our method detects saccadic suppression and redirects the users during the resulting temporary blindness. Our dynamic path planning runs in real-time on a GPU, and thus can avoid static and dynamic obstacles, including walls, furniture, and other VR users sharing the same physical space. To further enhance saccadic redirection, we propose subtle gaze direction methods tailored for VR perception.We demonstrate that saccades can significantly increase the rotation gains during redirection without introducing visual distortions or simulator sickness. This allows our method to apply to large open virtual spaces and small physical environments for room-scale VR. We evaluate our system via numerical simulations and real user studies.


    1. Rachel Albert, Anjul Patney, David Luebke, and Joohwan Kim. 2017. Latency Requirements for Foveated Rendering in Virtual Reality. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. 14, 4. Article 25 (2017), 13 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Richard Andersson, Linnea Larsson, Kenneth Holmqvist, Martin Stridh, and Marcus Nyström. 2017. One algorithm to rule them all? An evaluation and discussion of ten eye movement event-detection algorithms. Behavior Research Methods 49, 2 (2017), 616–637.Google ScholarCross Ref
    3. Elena Arabadzhiyska, Okan Tarhan Tursun, Karol Myszkowski, Hans-Peter Seidel, and Piotr Didyk. 2017. Saccade Landing Position Prediction for Gaze-contingent Rendering. ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 4, Article 50 (2017), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Mahdi Azmandian, Timofey Grechkin, Mark Bolas, and Evan Suma. 2015. Physical Space Requirements for Redirected Walking: How Size and Shape Affect Performance. In Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments (2015). The Eurographics Association, Kyoto, Japan, 93–100. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Mahdi Azmandian, Timofey Grechkin, Mark Bolas, and Evan Suma. 2016a. Automated Path Prediction for Redirected Walking Using Navigation Meshes. In IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces. 63–66.Google Scholar
    6. Mahdi Azmandian, Timofey Grechkin, Mark Bolas, and Evan Suma. 2016b. The redirected walking toolkit: a unified development platform for exploring large virtual environments. In 2016 IEEE 2nd Workshop on Everyday Virtual Reality (WEVR). 9–14.Google ScholarCross Ref
    7. Mahdi Azmandian, Timofey Grechkin, and Evan Suma Rosenberg. 2017. An evaluation of strategies for two-user redirected walking in shared physical spaces. In 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR). 91–98.Google Scholar
    8. Mahdi Azmandian, Mark Hancock, Hrvoje Benko, Eyal Ofek, and Andrew D. Wilson. 2016c. A Demonstration of Haptic Retargeting: Dynamic Repurposing of Passive Haptics for Enhanced Virtual Reality Experiences. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Conference on Interactive Surfaces and Spaces (ISS ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 501–504. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. A. Terry Bahill, Michael R. Clark, and Lawrence Stark. 1975. The main sequence, a tool for studying human eye movements. Mathematical Biosciences 24, 3-4 (1975). 191–204.Google ScholarCross Ref
    10. Reynold Bailey, Ann McNamara, Nisha Sudarsanam, and Cindy Grimm. 2009. Subtle Gaze Direction. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 4, Article 100 (2009), 14 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Benjamin Bolte and Markus Lappe. 2015. Subliminal Reorientation and Repositioning in Immersive Virtual Environments using Saccadic Suppression. IEEE TVCG 21, 4 (2015), 545–552.Google Scholar
    12. Thomas Booth, Srinivas Sridharan, Ann McNamara, Cindy Grimm, and Reynold Bailey. 2013. Guiding Attention in Controlled Real-world Environments. In SAP ’13. 75–82. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Bruce Bridgeman, Derek Hendry, and Lawrence Stark. 1975. Failure to detect displacement of the visual world during saccadic eye movements. Vision Research 15, 6 (1975), 719 — 722.Google ScholarCross Ref
    14. David C. Burr, M. Concetta Morrone, John Ross, and others. 1994. Selective suppression of the magnocellular visual pathway during saccadic eye movements. Nature 371, 6497 (1994), 511–513.Google Scholar
    15. Haiwei Chen and Henry Fuchs. 2017. Supporting Free Walking in a Large Virtual Environment: Imperceptible Redirected Walking with an Immersive Distractor. In Proceedings of the Computer Graphics International Conference (CGI ’17). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 22, 6 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Lung-Pan Cheng, Eyal Ofek, Christian Holz, Hrvoje Benko, and Andrew D. Wilson. 2017. Sparse Haptic Proxy: Touch Feedback in Virtual Environments Using a General Passive Prop. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’17). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 3718–3728. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Mark R. Diamond, John Ross, and Maria C. Morrone. 2000. Extraretinal control of saccadic suppression. The Journal of Neuroscience 20, 9 (2000), 3449–3455.Google ScholarCross Ref
    18. Zhi-Chao Dong, Xiao-Ming Fu, Chi Zhang, Kang Wu, and Ligang Liu. 2017. Smooth Assembled Mappings for Large-scale Real Walking. ACM Trans. Graph. 36, 6, Article 211 (2017), 13 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Andrew T Duchowski and Arzu Çöltekin. 2007. Foveated gaze-contingent displays for peripheral LOD management, 3D visualization, and stereo imaging. ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMM) 3, 4 (2007), 6. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Andrew T. Duchowski, Nathan Cournia, and Hunter Murphy. 2004. Gaze-contingent displays: A review. CyberPsychology & Behavior 7, 6 (2004), 621–634.Google ScholarCross Ref
    21. Andrew T. Duchowski, Donald H. House, Jordan Gestring, Rui I. Wang, Krzysztof Krejtz, Izabela Krejtz, Radosław Mantiuk, and Bartosz Bazyluk. 2014. Reducing Visual Discomfort of 3D Stereoscopic Displays with Gaze-contingent Depth-of-field. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 39–46. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Leon A. Gatys, Matthias Kümmerer, Thomas Wallis, and Matthias Bethge. 2017. Guiding human gaze with convolutional neural networks. ArXiv e-prints (2017). arXiv:cs.CV/1712.06492Google Scholar
    23. Timofey Grechkin, Jerald Thomas, Mahdi Azmandian, Mark Bolas, and Evan Suma. 2016. Revisiting Detection Thresholds for Redirected Walking: Combining Translation and Curvature Gains. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 113–120. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Steve Grogorick, Michael Stengel, Elmar Eisemann, and Marcus Magnor. 2017. Subtle Gaze Guidance for Immersive Environments. In SAP ’17. Article 4, 7 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Brian Guenter, Mark Finch, Steven Drucker, Desney Tan, and John Snyder. 2012. Foveated 3D Graphics. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 6 (2012), 164:1–164:10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Peng Han, Daniel R Saunders, Russell L Woods, and Gang Luo. 2013. Trajectory prediction of saccadic eye movements using a compressed exponential model. Journal of vision 13, 8 (2013), 27–27.Google ScholarCross Ref
    27. Eric Hodgson and Eric Bachmann. 2013. Comparing Four Approaches to Generalized Redirected Walking: Simulation and Live User Data. TVCG 19, 4 (2013), 634–643. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. J. Johanna Hopp and Albert F Fuchs. 2004. The characteristics and neuronal substrate of saccadic eye movement plasticity. Progress in Neurobiology 72, 1 (2004), 27 — 53.Google ScholarCross Ref
    29. Michael R. Ibbotson and Shaun L. Cloherty. 2009. Visual Perception: Saccadic Omission – Suppression or Temporal Masking? Current Biology 19, 12 (2009), R493–R496.Google ScholarCross Ref
    30. David E. Jacobs, Orazio Gallo, Emily A. Cooper, Kari Pulli, and Marc Levoy. 2015. Simulating the Visual Experience of Very Bright and Very Dark Scenes. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 3, Article 25 (2015), 15 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Robert S Kennedy, Norman E Lane, Kevin S Berbaum, and Michael G Lilienthal. 1993. Simulator sickness questionnaire: An enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 3, 3 (1993), 203–220.Google ScholarCross Ref
    32. Eike Langbehn, Gerd Bruder, and Frank Steinicke. 2016. Subliminal Reorientation and Repositioning in Virtual Reality During Eye Blinks. In Proc. of Spatial User Interaction. 213–213. Google ScholarDigital Library
    33. Eike Langbehn, Frank Steinicke, Markus Lappe, Gregory F. Welch, and Gerd Bruder. 2018. In the Blink of an Eye: Leveraging Blink-Induced Suppression for Imperceptible Position and Orientation Redirection in Virtual Reality. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 4, Article 66 (2018). Google ScholarDigital Library
    34. Marc Levoy and Ross Whitaker. 1990. Gaze-directed volume rendering. ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics 24, 2 (1990), 217–223. Google ScholarDigital Library
    35. Wenxun Li and Leonard Matin. 1990. The influence of saccade length on the saccadic suppression of displacement detection. Perception & Psychophysics 48, 5 (1990), 453–458.Google ScholarCross Ref
    36. David Luebke and Benjamin Hallen. 2001. Perceptually driven simplification for inter-active rendering. In Rendering Techniques 2001. Springer, 223–234. Google ScholarDigital Library
    37. Ethel Matin. 1974. Saccadic suppression: a review and an analysis. Psychological bulletin 81, 12 (1974), 899.Google Scholar
    38. George W. McConkie and Lester C. Loschky. 2002. Perception onset time during fixations in free viewing. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 34, 4 (2002), 481–490.Google ScholarCross Ref
    39. Ann McNamara, Reynold Bailey, and Cindy Grimm. 2008. Improving Search Task Performance Using Subtle Gaze Direction. In Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APGV ’08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 51–56. Google ScholarDigital Library
    40. Ann McNamara, Reynold Bailey, and Cindy Grimm. 2009. Search Task Performance Using Subtle Gaze Direction with the Presence of Distractions. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. 6, 3 (2009), 17:1–17:19. Google ScholarDigital Library
    41. Ann McNamara, Thomas Booth, Srinivas Sridharan, Stephen Caffey, Cindy Grimm, and Reynold Bailey. 2012. Directing Gaze in Narrative Art. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 63–70. Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. J. Nocedal and S. Wright. 2006. Numerical Optimization. Springer New York.Google Scholar
    43. Anjul Patney. 2017. Perceptual Insights into Foveated Virtual Reality. In NVIDIA GPU Technology Conference 2017 Talks. San Jose, California.Google Scholar
    44. Anjul Patney, Marco Salvi, Joohwan Kim, Anton Kaplanyan, Chris Wyman, Nir Benty, David Luebke, and Aaron Lefohn. 2016. Towards Foveated Rendering for Gaze-tracked Virtual Reality. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 6 (2016), 179:1–179:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    45. Tabitha C Peck, Henry Fuchs, and Mary C Whitton. 2010. Improved redirection with distractors: A large-scale-real-walking locomotion interface and its effect on navigation in virtual environments. In Virtual Reality Conference. IEEE, 35–38. Google ScholarDigital Library
    46. Ken Pfeuffer, Benedikt Mayer, Diako Mardanbegi, and Hans Gellersen. 2017. Gaze + Pinch Interaction in Virtual Reality. In Proc. of Spatial User Interaction (SUI ’17). 99–108. Google ScholarDigital Library
    47. Sharif Razzaque. 2005. Redirected Walking. Ph.D. Dissertation. Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Advisor(s) Brooks, Jr., Fredrick P. AAI3190299. Google ScholarDigital Library
    48. Sharif Razzaque, Zachariah Kohn, and Mary C. Whitton. 2001. Redirected walking. In Proc. of Eurographics, Vol. 9. Manchester, UK, 105–106.Google Scholar
    49. Sharif Razzaque, David Swapp, Mel Slater, Mary C. Whitton, and Anthony Steed. 2002. Redirected Walking in Place. In EGVE ’02. 123–130. Google ScholarDigital Library
    50. Stephen M. Reder. 1973. On-line monitoring of eye-position signals in contingent and noncontingent paradigms. Behavior Research Methods 5, 2 (1973), 218–228.Google ScholarCross Ref
    51. William H. Ridder III and Alan Tomlinson. 1997. A comparison of saccadic and blink suppression in normal observers. Vision Research 37, 22 (1997), 3171–3179.Google ScholarCross Ref
    52. John Ross, M. Concetta Morrone, Michael E. Goldberg, and David C. Burr. 2001. Changes in visual perception at the time of saccades. Trends in Neurosciences 24, 2 (2001), 113–121.Google ScholarCross Ref
    53. Srinivas Sridharan and Reynold Bailey. 2015. Automatic Target Prediction and Subtle Gaze Guidance for Improved Spatial Information Recall. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’15). 99–106. Google ScholarDigital Library
    54. Srinivas Sridharan, James Pieszala, and Reynold Bailey. 2015. Depth-based Subtle Gaze Guidance in Virtual Reality Environments. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP ’15). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 132–132. Google ScholarDigital Library
    55. Frank Steinicke, Gerd Bruder, Jason Jerald, Harald Frenz, and Markus Lappe. 2008. Analyses of Human Sensitivity to Redirected Walking. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST ’08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 149–156. Google ScholarDigital Library
    56. Frank Steinicke, Gerd Bruder, Jason Jerald, Harald Frenz, and Markus Lappe. 2010. Estimation of Detection Thresholds for Redirected Walking Techniques. IEEE TVCG 16, 1 (2010), 17–27. Google ScholarDigital Library
    57. Evan A. Suma, D. Krum, and Mark Bolas. 2013. Redirected Walking in Mixed Reality Training Applications. In Human Walking in Virtual Environments: Perception, Technology, and Applications. Springer, 319–331.Google Scholar
    58. Qi Sun, Li-Yi Wei, and Arie Kaufman. 2016. Mapping Virtual and Physical Reality. ACM Trans. Graph. 35, 4, Article 64 (2016), 12 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    59. Martin Usoh, Kevin Arthur, Mary C. Whitton, Rui Bastos, Anthony Steed, Mel Slater, and Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. 1999. Walking > Walking-in-place > Flying, in Virtual Environments. In SIGGRAPH ’99. 359–364. Google ScholarDigital Library
    60. Peter Vincent and Ritchie Brannan. 2017. S7797 Tobii Eye Tracked Foveated Rendering for VR and Desktop. (2017).Google Scholar
    61. Mounia Ziat, Vincent Hayward, C. Elaine Chapman, Marc O. Ernst, and Charles Lenay. 2010. Tactile suppression of displacement. Experimental Brain Research 206, 3 (2010), 299–310.Google ScholarCross Ref

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: