“Toward high-quality modal contact sound” by Zheng and James

  • ©Changxi Zheng and Doug L. James




    Toward high-quality modal contact sound



    Contact sound models based on linear modal analysis are commonly used with rigid body dynamics. Unfortunately, treating vibrating objects as “rigid” during collision and contact processing fundamentally limits the range of sounds that can be computed, and contact solvers for rigid body animation can be ill-suited for modal contact sound synthesis, producing various sound artifacts. In this paper, we resolve modal vibrations in both collision and frictional contact processing stages, thereby enabling non-rigid sound phenomena such as micro-collisions, vibrational energy exchange, and chattering. We propose a frictional multibody contact formulation and modified Staggered Projections solver which is well-suited to sound rendering and avoids noise artifacts associated with spatial and temporal contact-force fluctuations which plague prior methods. To enable practical animation and sound synthesis of numerous bodies with many coupled modes, we propose a novel asynchronous integrator with model-level adaptivity built into the frictional contact solver. Vibrational contact damping is modeled to approximate contact-dependent sound dissipation. Results are provided that demonstrate high-quality contact resolution with sound.


    1. Anderson, E., Bai, Z., Bischof, C., Blackford, S., Demmel, J., Dongarra, J., Du Croz, J., Greenbaum, A., Hammarling, S., McKenney, A., and Sorensen, D. 1999. LAPACK Users’ Guide, third ed. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA. Google Scholar
    2. Anitescu, M., and Potra, F. 1997. Formulating dynamic multi-rigid-body contact problems with friction as solvable linear complementarity problems. Nonlinear Dynamics 14, 231–247.Google ScholarCross Ref
    3. Baraff, D. 1990. Curved surfaces and coherence for non-penetrating rigid body simulation. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 90), 19–28. Google Scholar
    4. Baraff, D. 1991. Coping with friction for non-penetrating rigid body simulation. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 91), 31–40. Google Scholar
    5. Baraff, D. 1993. Issues in computing contact forces for non-penetrating rigid bodies. Algorithmica 10, 2-4, 292–352.Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Bonneel, N., Drettakis, G., Tsingos, N., Viaud-Delmon, I., and James, D. 2008. Fast modal sounds with scalable frequency-domain synthesis. ACM Transactions on Graphics 27, 3 (Aug.), 24:1–24:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Brogliato, B. 1999. Nonsmooth Mechanics, second ed. Springer.Google Scholar
    8. Capell, S., Green, S., Curless, B., Duchamp, T., and Popović, Z. 2002. A multiresolution framework for dynamic deformations. In ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation, 41–48. Google Scholar
    9. Chadwick, J. N., An, S. S., and James, D. L. 2009. Harmonic Shells: A practical nonlinear sound model for near-rigid thin shells. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 5, 1–10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Cottle, R., Pang, J., and Stone, R. 1992. The linear complementarity problem. Academic Press.Google Scholar
    11. Debunne, G., Desbrun, M., Cani, M.-P., and Barr, A. H. 2001. Dynamic real-time deformations using space & time adaptive sampling. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 31–36. Google Scholar
    12. Doel, K., Knott, D., and Pai, D. 2004. Interactive simulation of complex audiovisual scenes. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 13, 1, 99–111. Google ScholarCross Ref
    13. Erleben, K. 2007. Velocity-based shock propagation for multi-body dynamics animation. ACM Transactions on Graphics 26, 2 (June), 12:1–12:20. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Gaver, W. 1993. Synthesizing auditory icons. In Proceedings of the INTERACT’93 and CHI’93 conference on Human factors in computing systems, ACM, 228–235. Google Scholar
    15. Gill, P., Murray, W., and Wright, M. 1981. Practical Optimization. Academic Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
    16. Gottschalk, S., Lin, M., and Manocha, D. 1996. OBB-Tree: A Hierarchical Structure for Rapid Interference Detection. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 171–180. Google Scholar
    17. Grinspun, E., Krysl, P., and Schröder, P. 2002. CHARMS: A Simple Framework for Adaptive Simulation. ACM Transactions on Graphics 21, 3 (July), 281–290. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Guendelman, E., Bridson, R., and Fedkiw, R. P. 2003. Nonconvex rigid bodies with stacking. vol. 22, 871–878. Google Scholar
    19. Hahn, J. K. 1988. Realistic animation of rigid bodies. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 88), 299–308. Google Scholar
    20. Harmon, D., Vouga, E., Smith, B., Tamstorf, R., and Grinspun, E. 2009. Asynchronous contact mechanics. ACM Transactions on Graphics 28, 3 (July), 87:1–87:12. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. James, D. L., and Pai, D. K. 2004. BD-Tree: Output-sensitive collision detection for reduced deformable models. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 3 (Aug.), 393–398. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. James, D. L., Barbic, J., and Pai, D. K. 2006. Precomputed Acoustic Transfer: Output-sensitive, accurate sound generation for geometrically complex vibration sources. ACM Transactions on Graphics 25, 3 (July), 987–995. Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Jefferson, D. 1985. Virtual time. ACM Transaction on Programming Languages and Systems 7, 3 (July), 404–425. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Kaufman, D. M., Sueda, S., James, D. L., and Pai, D. K. 2008. Staggered projections for frictional contact in multibody systems. ACM Transactions on Graphics 27, 5 (Dec.), 164:1–164:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Kim, T., and James, D. L. 2009. Skipping steps in deformable simulation with online model reduction. ACM Transactions on Graphics 28, 5 (Dec.), 123:1–123:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Klatzky, R., Pai, D., and Krotkov, E. 2000. Perception of material from contact sounds. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 9, 4, 399–410. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Kry, P. G., and Pai, D. K. 2003. Continuous contact simulation for smooth surfaces. ACM Trans. Graph. 22, 1, 106–129. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Lötstedt, P. 1982. Mechanical systems of rigid bodies subject to unilateral constraints. SIAM J. of Appl. Math. 42, 2, 281–296.Google ScholarCross Ref
    29. Milenkovic, V. J., and Schmidl, H. 2001. Optimization-based animation. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 37–46. Google Scholar
    30. Mirtich, B. 2000. Timewarp rigid body simulation. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 193–200. Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Moore, M., and Wilhelms, J. 1988. Collision detection and response for computer animation. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 88), 289–298. Google Scholar
    32. Moreau, J. 1966. Quadratic programming in mechanics: One-sided constraints. J. of SIAM Control 4, 1, 153–158.Google ScholarCross Ref
    33. O’Brien, J. F., Cook, P. R., and Essl, G. 2001. Synthesizing sounds from physically based motion. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 529–536. Google Scholar
    34. O’Brien, J. F., Shen, C., and Gatchalian, C. M. 2002. Synthesizing sounds from rigid-body simulations. In 2002 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, 175–182. Google Scholar
    35. Pai, D. K., van den Doel, K., James, D. L., Lang, J., Lloyd, J. E., Richmond, J. L., and Yau, S. H. 2001. Scanning physical interaction behavior of 3d objects. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 87–96. Google Scholar
    36. Raghuvanshi, N., and Lin, M. C. 2006. Interactive Sound Synthesis for Large Scale Environments. In SI3D ’06: Proceedings of the 2006 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics and games, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA, 101–108. Google Scholar
    37. Raghuvanshi, N., Snyder, J., Mehra, R., Lin, M., and Govindaraju, N. 2010. Precomputed wave simulation for real-time sound propagation of dynamic sources in complex scenes. ACM Transactions on Graphics 29, 4 (July), 68:1–68:11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    38. Ren, Z., Yeh, H., and Lin, M. 2010. Synthesizing contact sounds between textured objects. In IEEE Virtual Reality.Google Scholar
    39. Schittkowski, K. 2005. QL: A Fortran code for convex quadratic programming-users guide, version 2.11. Research Report, Department of Mathematics, University of Bayreuth.Google Scholar
    40. Shabana, A. A. 1990. Theory of Vibration, Volume II: Discrete and Continuous Systems, first ed. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.Google Scholar
    41. Stewart, D., and Trinkle, J. 1996. An implicit time-stepping scheme for rigid-body dynamics with inelastic collisions and coulomb friction. Inter. J. for Numerical Methods in Engineering 39, 2673–2691.Google ScholarCross Ref
    42. Stewart, D. 2000. Rigid-body dynamics with friction and impact. SIAM Review 42, 1, 3–39. Google ScholarDigital Library
    43. Takala, T., and Hahn, J. 1992. Sound rendering. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 92), 211–220. Google Scholar
    44. van den Doel, K., and Pai, D. 1996. Synthesis of shape dependent sounds with physical modeling. In Proc. of the International Conference on Auditory Display.Google Scholar
    45. van den Doel, K., Kry, P. G., and Pai, D. K. 2001. FoleyAutomatic: Physically-Based Sound Effects for Interactive Simulation and Animation. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 537–544. Google Scholar
    46. Wasfy, T., and Noor, A. 2003. Computational strategies for flexible multibody systems. Appl. Mech. Rev. 56, 6.Google ScholarCross Ref
    47. Wriggers, P. 2006. Computational Contact Mechanics, second ed. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
    48. Zheng, C., and James, D. L. 2010. Rigid-body fracture sound with precomputed soundbanks. ACM Transactions on Graphics 29, 4 (July), 69:1–69:13. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: