“Real-time Structure Aware Color Stippling” by Ma, Deng, Wang, Chen and Boubekeur

  • ©Lei Ma, Hong Deng, Beibei Wang, Yanyun Chen, and Tamy Boubekeur

  • ©Lei Ma, Hong Deng, Beibei Wang, Yanyun Chen, and Tamy Boubekeur



Entry Number: 92


    Real-time Structure Aware Color Stippling



    In computer graphics, stippling is a widely used non-photorealistic rendering technique. As the art of representing images with dots, one of the key problems is the placement of dots. In general, they should be distributed evenly, and with some randomness at the same time. Blue noise methods provide these characteristics and are used by state-of-the-art gray-scale algorithms to distribute dots. Color stippling, however, is more challenging as each channel should have even distribution at the same time. Existing approaches cast color stippling as a multi-class blue noise sampling problem and provide high quality results at the cost of a very long processing time. In this paper, we propose a real-time structure aware method for color stippling, based on samples generated from an incremental voronoï set. Our method can handle an arbitrary input color vector for stippling and produce significantly better results than previous methods, at real-time frame rate. We evaluate the perceptual quality of our stippling with a user study and its numerical performance by measuring the MSE between the reconstructed image from the stippling and the input image. As a result, the real time performance of our method makes interactive stippling editing possible, providing the artist with an effective tool to explore quickly a wide space of color image stippling.


    • Hua Li and David Mould. 2010. Contrast-aware Halftoning. Computer Graphics Forum 29, 2 (2010), 273–280. 
    • Hua Li and David Mould. 2011. Structure-preserving Stippling by Priority-based Error Diffusion. In Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2011 (GI ’11). 127–134. 
    • Lei Ma, Yanyun Chen, Yinling Qian, and Hanqiu Sun. 2018a. Incremental Voronoi sets for instant stippling. The Visual Computer 34, 6 (2018), 863–873. 
    • Lei Ma, Jianwei Guo, Dong-Ming Yan, Hanqiu Sun, and Yanyun Chen. 2018b. Instant Stippling on 3D Scenes. Computer Graphics Forum 37, 7 (2018), 255–266. 
    • Domingo Martín, Germán Arroyo, Alejandro Rodríguez, and Tobias Isenberg. 2017. A survey of digital stippling. Computers & Graphics 67 (2017), 24 – 44. 
    • Wai-Man Pang, Yingge Qu, Tien-Tsin Wong, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Pheng-Ann Heng. 2008. Structure-aware Halftoning. ACM Trans. Graph. 27, 3 (Aug. 2008), 89:1–89:8. 
    • L.-Y. Wei. 2010. Multi-class blue noise sampling. ACM Trans. on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 29, 4 (2010), 79:1–79:8.



Overview Page: