“Precomputed wave simulation for real-time sound propagation of dynamic sources in complex scenes” by Raghuvanshi, Snyder, Mehra, Lin and Govindaraju

  • ©Nikunj Raghuvanshi, John M. Snyder, Ravish Mehra, Ming C. Lin, and Naga Govindaraju

Conference:


Type:


Title:

    Precomputed wave simulation for real-time sound propagation of dynamic sources in complex scenes

Presenter(s)/Author(s):



Abstract:


    We present a method for real-time sound propagation that captures all wave effects, including diffraction and reverberation, for multiple moving sources and a moving listener in a complex, static 3D scene. It performs an offline numerical simulation over the scene and then applies a novel technique to extract and compactly encode the perceptually salient information in the resulting acoustic responses. Each response is automatically broken into two phases: early reflections (ER) and late reverberation (LR), via a threshold on the temporal density of arriving wavefronts. The LR is simulated and stored in the frequency domain, once per room in the scene. The ER accounts for more detailed spatial variation, by recording a set of peak delays/amplitudes in the time domain and a residual frequency response sampled in octave frequency bands, at each source/receiver point pair in a 5D grid. An efficient run-time uses this precomputed representation to perform binaural sound rendering based on frequency-domain convolution. Our system demonstrates realistic, wave-based acoustic effects in real time, including diffraction low-passing behind obstructions, sound focusing, hollow reverberation in empty rooms, sound diffusion in fully-furnished rooms, and realistic late reverberation.

References:


    1. Antonacci, F., Foco, M., Sarti, A., and Tubaro, S. 2004. Real time modeling of acoustic propagation in complex environments. Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects, 274–279.Google Scholar
    2. Blauert, J. 1997. An introduction to binaural technology. In Binaural and Spatial Hearing in Real and Virtual Environments, R. Gilkey and T. R. Anderson, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum, USA.Google Scholar
    3. Botteldooren, D. 1995. Finite-difference time-domain simulation of low-frequency room acoustic problems. Acoustical Society of America Journal 98 (December), 3302–3308.Google ScholarCross Ref
    4. Calamia, P. 2009. Advances in Edge-Diffraction Modeling for Virtual-Acoustic Simulations. PhD thesis, Princeton University. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Chandak, A., Lauterbach, C., Taylor, M., Ren, Z., and Manocha, D. 2008. Ad-frustum: Adaptive frustum tracing for interactive sound propagation. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 14, 6, 1707–1722. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Emerit, M., Faure, J., Guerin, A., Nicol, R., Pallone, G., Philippe, P., and Virette, D. 2007. Efficient binaural filtering in QMF domain for BRIR. In AES 122th Convention.Google Scholar
    7. Funkhouser, T., Tsingos, N., Carlbom, I., Elko, G., Sondhi, M., West, J. E., Pingali, G., Min, P., and Ngan, A. 2004. A beam tracing method for interactive architectural acoustics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 115, 2, 739–756.Google ScholarCross Ref
    8. Gardner, W. G. 1998. Reverberation algorithms. In Applications of Digital Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, M. Kahrs and K. Brandenburg, Eds., 1 ed. Springer, 85–131.Google Scholar
    9. Halmrast, T. 2007. Coloration due to reflections. further investigations. In International Congress on Acoustics.Google Scholar
    10. Hartmann, W. M., and Wittenberg, A. 1996. On the externalization of sound images. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99, 6 (June), 3678–3688.Google ScholarCross Ref
    11. James, D. L., Barbic, J., and Pai, D. K. 2006. Precomputed acoustic transfer: output-sensitive, accurate sound generation for geometrically complex vibration sources. ACM Transactions on Graphics 25, 3 (July), 987–995. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Jesteadt, W., Wier, C. C., and Green, D. M. 1977. Intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 61, 1, 169–177.Google ScholarCross Ref
    13. Kinsler, L. E., Frey, A. R., Coppens, A. B., and Sanders, J. V. 2000. Fundamentals of acoustics, 4 ed. Wiley, December.Google Scholar
    14. Kuttruff, H. 2000. Room Acoustics. Taylor & Francis, October.Google Scholar
    15. Litovsky, R. Y., Colburn, S. H., Yost, W. A., and Guzman, S. J. 1999. The precedence effect. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106, 4, 1633–1654.Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. Lokki, T. 2002. Physically-based Auralization. PhD thesis, Helsinki University of Technology.Google Scholar
    17. Masterson, C., Kearney, G., and Boland, F. 2009. Acoustic impulse response interpolation for multichannel systems using dynamic time warping. In 35th AES Conference on Audio for Games.Google Scholar
    18. Min, P., and Funkhouser, T. 2000. Priority-driven acoustic modeling for virtual environments. Computer Graphics Forum (September), 179–188.Google Scholar
    19. Pope, J., Creasey, D., and Chalmers, A. 1999. Realtime room acoustics using ambisonics. In The Proceedings of the AES 16th International Conference on Spatial Sound Reproduction, Audio Engineering Society, 427–435.Google Scholar
    20. Raghuvanshi, N., Narain, R., and Lin, M. C. 2009. Efficient and accurate sound propagation using adaptive rectangular decomposition. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 15, 5, 789–801. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Sakamoto, S., Ushiyama, A., and Nagatomo, H. 2006. Numerical analysis of sound propagation in rooms using the finite difference time domain method. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120, 5, 3008.Google ScholarCross Ref
    22. Siltanen, S. 2005. Geometry Reduction in Room Acoustics Modeling. Master’s thesis, Helsinki University of Technology.Google Scholar
    23. Stavrakis, E., Tsingos, N., and Calamia, P. 2008. Topological sound propagation with reverberation graphs. Acta Acustica/Acustica – the Journal of the European Acoustics Association (EAA).Google Scholar
    24. Svensson, U. P., Calamia, P., and Nakanishi, S. 2009. Frequency-domain edge diffraction for finite and infinite edges. In Acta Acustica/Acustica 95, 568–572.Google ScholarCross Ref
    25. Taylor, M. T., Chandak, A., Antani, L., and Manocha, D. 2009. Resound: interactive sound rendering for dynamic virtual environments. In MM ’09: Proceedings of the seventeen ACM international conference on Multimedia, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 271–280. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Tsingos, N., Funkhouser, T., Ngan, A., and Carlbom, I. 2001. Modeling acoustics in virtual environments using the uniform theory of diffraction. In SIGGRAPH ’01: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 545–552. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Tsingos, N., Dachsbacher, C., Lefebvre, S., and Dellepiane, M. 2007. Instant sound scattering. In Rendering Techniques (Proceedings of the Eurographics Symposium on Rendering). Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Tsingos, N. 2009. Pre-computing geometry-based reverberation effects for games. In 35th AES Conference on Audio for Games.Google Scholar


ACM Digital Library Publication:



Overview Page: