“Inverse kinematics for reduced deformable models” by Der, Sumner and Popović

  • ©Kevin G. Der, Robert W. Sumner, and Jovan Popović




    Inverse kinematics for reduced deformable models



    Articulated shapes are aptly described by reduced deformable models that express required shape deformations using a compact set of control parameters. Although sufficient to describe most shape deformations, these control parameters can be ill-suited for animation tasks, particularly when reduced deformable models are inferred automatically from example shapes. Our algorithm provides intuitive and direct control of reduced deformable models similar to a conventional inverse-kinematics algorithm for jointed rigid structures. We present a fully automated pipeline that transforms a set of unarticulated example shapes into a controllable, articulated model. With only a few manipulations, an animator can automatically and interactively pose detailed shapes at rates independent of their geometric complexity.


    1. Alexa, M., and Müller, W. 2000. Representing animations by principal components. Computer Graphics Forum 19, 3 (Aug.), 411–418.Google ScholarCross Ref
    2. Alexa, M., Cohen-Or, D., and Levin, D. 2000. As-rigid-as-possible shape interpolation. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, Annual Conference Series, 157–164. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Anguelov, D., Srinivasan, P., Koller, D., Thrun, S., Rodgers, J., and Davis, J. 2005. SCAPE: shape completion and animation of people. ACM Transactions on Graphics 24, 3 (Aug.), 408–416. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Barr, A. H. 1984. Global and local deformations of solid primitives. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 84), vol. 18, 21–30. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Gill, P. E., Murray, W., and Wright, M. H. 1989. Practical Optimization. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
    6. Grochow, K., Martin, S. L., Hertzmann, A., and Popović, Z. 2004. Style-based inverse kinematics. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 3 (Aug.), 522–531. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. James, D. L., and Pai, D. K. 2002. DyRT: Dynamic response textures for real time deformation simulation with graphics hardware. ACM Transactions on Graphics 21, 3 (July), 582–585. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. James, D. L., and Twigg, C. D. 2005. Skinning mesh animations. ACM Transactions on Graphics 24, 3 (Aug.), 399–407. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Karni, Z., and Gotsman, C. 2004. Compression of soft-body animation sequences. Computers & Graphics 28, 1, 25–34.Google ScholarCross Ref
    10. Kobbelt, L., Campagna, S., Vorsatz, J., and Seidel, H.-P. 1998. Interactive multi-resolution modeling on arbitrary meshes. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 98, Annual Conference Series, 105–114. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Lewis, J. P., Cordner, M., and Fong, N. 2000. Pose space deformations: A unified approach to shape interpolation and skeleton-driven deformation. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, Annual Conference Series, 165–172. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Lindholm, E., Kilgard, M. J., and Moreton, H. 2001. A user-programmable vertex engine. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 149–158. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Lipman, Y., Sorkine, O., Cohen-Or, D., Levin, D., Rössl, C., and Seidel, H.-P. 2004. Differential coordinates for interactive mesh editing. In Proceedings of Shape Modeling International, 181–190. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Lipman, Y., Sorkine, O., Levin, D., and Cohen-Or, D. 2005. Linear rotation-invariant coordinates for meshes. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 3, 479–487. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Lounsbery, M., Derose, T. D., and Warren, J. 1997. Multiresolution analysis for surfaces of arbitrary topological type. ACM Transactions on Graphics 16, 1 (Jan.), 34–73. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Mohr, A., and Gleicher, M. 2003. Building efficient, accurate character skins from examples. ACM Transactions on Graphics 22, 3 (July), 562–568. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Pentland, A., and Williams, J. 1989. Good vibrations: Modal dynamics for graphics and animation. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 89), vol. 23, 215–222. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Sloan, P.-P. J., Rose, III, C. F., and Cohen, M. F. 2001. Shape by example. In Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics (I3D), ACM Press, 135–144. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Sorkine, O. 2005. State-of-the-art report: Laplacian mesh processing. In Eurographics 2005—State of the Art Reports, The Eurographics Association, Dublin, Ireland, Eurographics, 53–70.Google Scholar
    20. Sumner, R. W., and Popović, J. 2004. Deformation transfer for triangle meshes. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 3 (Aug.), 399–405. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Sumner, R. W., Zwicker, M., Gotsman, C., and Popović, J. 2005. Mesh-based inverse kinematics. ACM Transactions on Graphics 24, 3 (Aug.), 488–495. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Sumner, R. W. 2005. Mesh Modification Using Deformation Gradients. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Yu, Y., Zhou, K., Xu, D., Shi, X., Bao, H., Guo, B., and Shum, H.-Y. 2004. Mesh editing with poisson-based gradient field manipulation. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 3 (Aug.), 644–651. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Zhang, L., Snavely, N., Curless, B., and Seitz, S. M. 2004. Space-time faces: high resolution capture for modeling and animation. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23, 3 (Aug.), 548–558. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Zorin, D., Schröder, P., and Sweldens, W. 1997. Interactive multiresolution mesh editing. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 97, Annual Conference Series, 259–268. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: