“Interactive modelling of volumetric musculoskeletal anatomy” by Abdrashitov, Bang, Levin, Singh and Jacobson

  • ©Rinat Abdrashitov, Seungbae Bang, David I. W. Levin, Karan Singh, and Alec Jacobson




    Interactive modelling of volumetric musculoskeletal anatomy



    We present a new approach for modelling musculoskeletal anatomy. Unlike previous methods, we do not model individual muscle shapes as geometric primitives (polygonal meshes, NURBS etc.). Instead, we adopt a volumetric segmentation approach where every point in our volume is assigned to a muscle, fat, or bone tissue. We provide an interactive modelling tool where the user controls the segmentation via muscle curves and we visualize the muscle shapes using volumetric rendering. Muscle curves enable intuitive yet powerful control over the muscle shapes. This representation allows us to automatically handle intersections between different tissues (muscle-muscle, muscle-bone, and muscle-skin) during the modelling and automates computation of muscle fiber fields. We further introduce a novel algorithm for converting the volumetric muscle representation into tetrahedral or surface geometry for use in downstream tasks. Additionally, we introduce an interactive skeleton authoring tool that allows the users to create skeletal anatomy starting from only a skin mesh using a library of bone parts.


    1. Rinat Abdrashitov, Alec Jacobson, and Karan Singh. 2019. A system for efficient 3D printed stop-motion face animation. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 39, 1 (2019), 1–11.Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Pankaj K Agarwal, Otfried Schwarzkopf, and Micha Sharir. 1996. The overlay of lower envelopes and its applications. Discrete & Computational Geometry 15, 1 (1996), 1–13.Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Irene Albrecht, Jörg Haber, and Hans-Peter Seidel. 2003. Construction and Animation of Anatomically Based Human Hand Models. In Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (San Diego, California) (SCA ’03). Eurographics Association, Goslar, DEU, 98–109.Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Dicko Ali-Hamadi, Tiantian Liu, Benjamin Gilles, Ladislav Kavan, Francois Faure, Olivier Palombi, and Marie-Paule Cani. 2013. Anatomy transfer. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 32, 6 (2013), 188.Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Mathieu Andreux, Emanuele Rodola, Mathieu Aubry, and Daniel Cremers. 2014. Anisotropic Laplace-Beltrami operators for shape analysis. In European Conference on Computer Vision. Springer, 299–312.Google Scholar
    6. Baptiste Angles, Daniel Rebain, Miles Macklin, Brian Wyvill, Loic Barthe, JP Lewis, Javier Von Der Pahlen, Shahram Izadi, Julien Valentin, Sofien Bouaziz, et al. 2019. VIPER: Volume invariant position-based elastic rods. Proceedings of the ACM on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques 2, 2 (2019), 1–26.Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Autodesk 2021. Maya Muscle. http://download.autodesk.com/us/support/files/muscle.pdf..Google Scholar
    8. Mario Botsch, Leif Kobbelt, Mark Pauly, Pierre Alliez, and Bruno Lévy. 2010. Polygon mesh processing. CRC press.Google Scholar
    9. Alexander M Bronstein, Michael M Bronstein, and Ron Kimmel. 2008. Numerical geometry of non-rigid shapes. Springer Science & Business Media.Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. J. E. Chadwick, D. R. Haumann, and R. E. Parent. 1989. Layered Construction for Deformable Animated Characters. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH ’89). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 243–252. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Nuttapong Chentanez, Ron Alterovitz, Daniel Ritchie, Lita Cho, Kris K Hauser, Ken Goldberg, Jonathan R Shewchuk, and James F O’Brien. 2009. Interactive simulation of surgical needle insertion and steering. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2009 papers. 1–10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Hon Fai Choi and Silvia S Blemker. 2013. Skeletal muscle fascicle arrangements can be reconstructed using a laplacian vector field simulation. PloS one 8, 10 (2013), e77576.Google ScholarCross Ref
    13. Barbara Cutler, Julie Dorsey, Leonard McMillan, Matthias Müller, and Robert Jagnow. 2002. A procedural approach to authoring solid models. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 21, 3 (2002), 302–311.Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Chris De Paoli and Karan Singh. 2015. SecondSkin: sketch-based construction of layered 3D models. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 34, 4 (2015), 1–10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Deepak Rajan 2021. Cassowary | Ziva Dynamics | Anatomy Modeling | Part 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AD6TAQHnZwk&ab_channel=DeepakRajan.Google Scholar
    16. Akio Doi and Akio Koide. 1991. An efficient method of triangulating equi-valued surfaces by using tetrahedral cells. IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems 74, 1 (1991), 214–224.Google Scholar
    17. Herbert Edelsbrunner, Leonidas J Guibas, and Micha Sharir. 1989. The upper envelope of piecewise linear functions: algorithms and applications. Discrete & Computational Geometry 4, 4 (1989), 311–336.Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Gaël Guennebaud, Benoît Jacob, et al. 2010. Eigen v3. http://eigen.tuxfamily.org.Google Scholar
    19. Andrew J Hanson and Hui Ma. 1995. Parallel transport approach to curve framing. Indiana University, Techreports-TR425 11 (1995), 3–7.Google Scholar
    20. Yixin Hu, Qingnan Zhou, Xifeng Gao, Alec Jacobson, Denis Zorin, and Daniele Panozzo. 2018. Tetrahedral meshing in the wild. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 4 (2018), 60–1.Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. James Jacobs, Jernej Barbic, Essex Edwards, Crawford Doran, and Andy van Straten. 2016. How to build a human: practical physics-based character animation. In Proceedings of the 2016 Symposium on Digital Production. 7–9.Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Alec Jacobson, Zhigang Deng, Ladislav Kavan, and John P Lewis. 2014. Skinning: Realtime shape deformation (full text not available). In ACM SIGGRAPH 2014 Courses. 1–1.Google ScholarDigital Library
    23. Alec Jacobson, Daniele Panozzo, et al. 2013. libigl: A simple C++ geometry processing library. http://igl.ethz.ch/projects/libigl/.Google Scholar
    24. Petr Kadleček, Alexandru-Eugen Ichim, Tiantian Liu, Jaroslav Křivánek, and Ladislav Kavan. 2016. Reconstructing personalized anatomical models for physics-based body animation. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 35, 6 (2016), 1–13.Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Francois Labelle and Jonathan Richard Shewchuk. 2007. Isosurface Stuffing: Fast Tetrahedral Meshes with Good Dihedral Angles. ACM Transactions on Graphics 26, 3 (July 2007), 57.1–57.10. http://graphics.cs.berkeley.edu/papers/Labelle-ISF-2007-07/Special issue on Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2007.Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Dongwoon Lee, Michael Glueck, Azam Khan, Eugene Fiume, and Ken Jackson. 2010. A survey of modeling and simulation of skeletal muscle. ACM Transactions on Graphics 28, 4 (2010), 1–13.Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. David I.W. Levin. 2020. Bartels: A lightweight collection of routines for physics simulation. https://github.com/dilevin/Bartels.Google Scholar
    28. Duo Li, Shinjiro Sueda, Debanga R Neog, and Dinesh K Pai. 2013. Thin skin elastodynamics. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 32, 4 (2013), 1–10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. William E Lorensen and Harvey E Cline. 1987. Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. ACM siggraph computer graphics 21, 4 (1987), 163–169.Google Scholar
    30. Michal Meyerovitch. 2006. Robust, generic and efficient construction of envelopes of surfaces in three-dimensional spaces. In European Symposium on Algorithms. Springer, 792–803.Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Vismay Modi, Lawson Fulton, A Jacobson, S Sueda, and David IW Levin. 2020. EMU: Efficient Muscle Simulation in Deformation Space. In Computer Graphics Forum. Wiley Online Library.Google Scholar
    32. Andrew Nealen, Takeo Igarashi, Olga Sorkine, and Marc Alexa. 2007. FiberMesh: designing freeform surfaces with 3D curves. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 papers. 41–es.Google ScholarDigital Library
    33. Victor Ng-Thow-Hing and Eugene Fiume. 1997. Interactive display and animation of B-spline solids as muscle shape primitives. In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation 1997, Budapest, Hungary, September 2-3, 1997 (Eurographics), Daniel Thalmann and Michiel van de Panne (Eds.). Springer, 81–97. Google ScholarCross Ref
    34. Alexandrina Orzan, Adrien Bousseau, Holger Winnemöller, Pascal Barla, Joëlle Thollot, and David Salesin. 2008. Diffusion curves: a vector representation for smooth-shaded images. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 27, 3 (2008), 1–8.Google ScholarDigital Library
    35. Shigeru Owada, Takahiro Harada, Philipp Holzer, and Takeo Igarashi. 2008. Volume Painter: Geometry-Guided Volume Modeling by Sketching on the Cross-Section.. In SBM. 9–16.Google Scholar
    36. Jonathan Palacios, Chongyang Ma, Weikai Chen, Li-Yi Wei, and Eugene Zhang. 2016. Tensor field design in volumes. In SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 Technical Briefs. 1–4.Google ScholarDigital Library
    37. Nico Pietroni, Paolo Cignoni, Miguel A Otaduy, and Roberto Scopigno. 2010. A survey on solid texture synthesis. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 30, 4 (2010), 74–89.Google ScholarDigital Library
    38. Nico Pietroni, Miguel A Otaduy, Bernd Bickel, Fabio Ganovelli, and Markus Gross. 2007. Texturing internal surfaces from a few cross sections. In Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 26. Wiley Online Library, 637–644.Google Scholar
    39. Michael Pratscher, Patrick Coleman, Joe Laszlo, and Karan Singh. 2005. Outsidein anatomy based character rigging. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics symposium on Computer animation. ACM, 329–338.Google ScholarDigital Library
    40. Valentin Roussellet, Nadine Abu Rumman, Florian Canezin, Nicolas Mellado, Ladislav Kavan, and Loïc Barthe. 2018. Dynamic implicit muscles for character skinning. Computers & Graphics 77 (2018), 227–239.Google ScholarCross Ref
    41. Shunsuke Saito, Liwen Hu, Chongyang Ma, Hikaru Ibayashi, Linjie Luo, and Hao Li. 2018. 3D hair synthesis using volumetric variational autoencoders. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 37, 6 (2018), 1–12.Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. Shunsuke Saito, Zi-Ye Zhou, and Ladislav Kavan. 2015. Computational bodybuilding: Anatomically-based modeling of human bodies. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 34, 4 (2015), 1–12.Google ScholarDigital Library
    43. Ferdi Scheepers, Richard E. Parent, Wayne E. Carlson, and Stephen F. May. 1997. Anatomy-Based Modeling of the Human Musculature. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH ’97). ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., USA, 163–172. Google ScholarDigital Library
    44. Johannes Schmid, Martin Sebastian Senn, Markus Gross, and Robert W Sumner. 2011. Overcoat: an implicit canvas for 3d painting. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 papers. 1–10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    45. Hang Si. 2015. TetGen, a Delaunay-based quality tetrahedral mesh generator. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) 41, 2 (2015), 1–36.Google ScholarDigital Library
    46. SideFx 2021. Houdini. https://www.sidefx.com/.Google Scholar
    47. Cláudio Teixeira Silva, Joao Luiz Dihl Comba, Steven Paul Callahan, and Fabio Fedrizzi Bernardon. 2005. A survey of GPU-based volume rendering of unstructured grids. Revista de informática teórica e aplicada. Porto Alegre, RS. Vol. 12, n. 2 (out. 2005), p. 9–29 (2005).Google Scholar
    48. Maryann Simmons, Jane Wilhelms, and Allen Van Gelder. 2002. Model-Based Reconstruction for Creature Animation. In Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (San Antonio, Texas) (SCA ’02). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 139–146. Google ScholarDigital Library
    49. Karansher Singh, Jun Ohya, and Richard Parent. 1995. Human figure synthesis and animation for virtual space teleconferencing. In 1995 Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, VRAIS ’95, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, March 11-15, 1995. IEEE Computer Society, 118–126. Google ScholarCross Ref
    50. Oded Stein, Eitan Grinspun, Max Wardetzky, and Alec Jacobson. 2018. Natural Boundary Conditions for Smoothing in Geometry Processing. ACM Trans. Graph. 37, 2, Article 23 (May 2018), 13 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    51. Kenshi Takayama, Daniele Panozzo, Alexander Sorkine-Hornung, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2013. Sketch-based generation and editing of quad meshes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 32, 4 (2013), 1–8.Google ScholarDigital Library
    52. Kenshi Takayama, Olga Sorkine, Andrew Nealen, and Takeo Igarashi. 2010. Volumetric modeling with diffusion surfaces. In ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2010 papers. 1–8.Google Scholar
    53. J. Teran, S. Blemker, V. Ng Thow Hing, and R. Fedkiw. 2003. Finite Volume Methods for the Simulation of Skeletal Muscle. In Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (San Diego, California) (SCA ’03). Eurographics Association, Goslar, DEU, 68–74.Google Scholar
    54. Joseph Teran, Eftychios Sifakis, Silvia S Blemker, Victor Ng-Thow-Hing, Cynthia Lau, and Ronald Fedkiw. 2005. Creating and simulating skeletal muscle from the visible human data set. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 11, 3 (2005), 317–328.Google ScholarDigital Library
    55. Winnie Tsang, Karan Singh, and Eugene Fiume. 2005. Helping Hand: An Anatomically Accurate Inverse Dynamics Solution for Unconstrained Hand Motion. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (Los Angeles, California) (SCA ’05). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 319–328. Google ScholarDigital Library
    56. Fabio Turchet, Oleg Fryazinov, and Sara C Schvartzman. 2017. Physically-based Muscles and Fibers Modeling from Superficial Patches. (2017).Google Scholar
    57. Lvdi Wang, Yizhou Yu, Kun Zhou, and Baining Guo. 2011. Multiscale vector volumes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 30, 6 (2011), 1–8.Google ScholarDigital Library
    58. Manfred Weiler, Martin Kraus, Markus Merz, and Thomas Ertl. 2003. Hardware-based ray casting for tetrahedral meshes. In IEEE Visualization, 2003. VIS 2003. IEEE, 333–340.Google ScholarDigital Library
    59. Weta Digital 2021. Weta Digital. https://www.wetafx.co.nz/research-and-tech/technology/tissue/.Google Scholar
    60. Jane Wilhelms and Allen Van Gelder. 1997. Anatomically Based Modeling. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH ’97). ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., USA, 173–180. Google ScholarDigital Library
    61. Zhan Xu, Yang Zhou, Evangelos Kalogerakis, Chris Landreth, and Karan Singh. 2020. RigNet: Neural Rigging for Articulated Characters. arXiv preprint arXiv:2005.00559 (2020).Google Scholar
    62. Yusuke Yoshiyasu, Wan-Chun Ma, Eiichi Yoshida, and Fumio Kanehiro. 2014. Asconformal-as-possible surface registration. In Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 33. Wiley Online Library, 257–267.Google Scholar
    63. Christopher Yu, Henrik Schumacher, and Keenan Crane. 2020. Repulsive Curves. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.07859 (2020).Google Scholar
    64. Zhan Yuan, Yizhou Yu, and Wenping Wang. 2012. Object-space multiphase implicit functions. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 31, 4 (2012), 1–10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    65. Ziva Dynamics 2021. Ziva VFX. https://zivadynamics.com.Google Scholar

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: