“Image warps for artistic perspective manipulation” by Carroll, Agarwala and Agrawala

  • ©Robert Carroll, Aseem Agarwala, and Maneesh Agrawala




    Image warps for artistic perspective manipulation



    Painters and illustrators commonly sketch vanishing points and lines to guide the construction of perspective images. We present a tool that gives users the ability to manipulate perspective in photographs using image space controls similar to those used by artists. Our approach computes a 2D warp guided by constraints based on projective geometry. A user annotates an image by marking a number of image space constraints including planar regions of the scene, straight lines, and associated vanishing points. The user can then use the lines, vanishing points, and other point constraints as handles to control the warp. Our system optimizes the warp such that straight lines remain straight, planar regions transform according to a homography, and the entire mapping is as shape-preserving as possible. While the result of this warp is not necessarily an accurate perspective projection of the scene, it is often visually plausible. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to produce a variety of effects, such as changing the perspective composition of a scene, exploring artistic perspectives not realizable with a camera, and matching perspectives of objects from different images so that they appear consistent for compositing.


    1. Agarwala, A., Agrawala, M., Cohen, M., Salesin, D., and Szeliski, R. 2006. Photographing long scenes with multi-viewpoint panoramas. ACM Trans. on Graph. 25, 3 (July), 853–861. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Agrawala, M., Zorin, D., and Munzner, T. 2000. Artistic multi-projection rendering. In Rendering Techniques 2000: 11th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, 125–136. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Carroll, R., Agrawala, M., and Agarwala, A. 2009. Optimizing content-preserving projections for wide-angle images. ACM Trans. on Graph. 28, 3 (Aug.), 1–9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Coleman, P., and Singh, K. 2004. Ryan: rendering your animation nonlinearly projected. In NPAR 2004, 129–138. Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Criminisi, A., Reid, I., and Zisserman, A. 2000. Single view metrology. Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 2, 123–148. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Criminisi, A., Kemp, M., and Zisserman, A. 2002. Bringing pictorial space to life: computer techniques for the analysis of paintings. In Proc. Computers and the History of Art (CHArt), 77–99.Google Scholar
    7. D’Amelio, J. 2004. Perspective Drawing Handbook. Dover Publications.Google Scholar
    8. Eismann, K. 2004. Photoshop Masking & Compositing. New Riders Press. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Gal, R., Sorkine, O., and Cohen-Or, D. 2006. Feature-aware texturing. In Rendering Techniques 2006: 17th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, 297–304. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Hall, P. M., Collomosse, J. P., Song, Y.-Z., Shen, P., and Li, C. 2007. Rtcams: A new perspective on nonphotorealistic rendering from photographs. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 13, 966–979. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Hoiem, D., Efros, A. A., and Hebert, M. 2005. Automatic photo pop-up. ACM Trans. on Graph. 24, 3 (Aug.), 577–584. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Horry, Y., Anjyo, K.-I., and Arai, K. 1997. Tour into the picture: using a spidery mesh interface to make animation from a single image. In Proc. SIGGRAPH, 225–232. Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Igarashi, T., Moscovich, T., and Hughes, J. F. 2005. As-rigid-as-possible shape manipulation. ACM Trans. on Graph. 24, 3 (Aug.), 1134–1141. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Kopf, J., Lischinski, D., Deussen, O., Cohen-Or, D., and Cohen, M. F. 2009. Locally adapted projections to reduce panorama distortions. Comput. Graph. Forum 28, 4, 1083–1089.Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Kubovy, M. 1986. The psychology of perspective and renaissance art. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
    16. Nocedal, J., and Wright, S. J. 2006. Numerical Optimization, 2nd ed. Springer Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
    17. Popescu, V., Rosen, P., and Adamo-Villani, N. 2009. The graph camera. ACM Trans. on Graph. 28, 5 (Dec.), 1–8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Rademacher, P., and Bishop, G. 1998. Multiple-center-of-projection images. In Proc. SIGGRAPH, 199–206. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Saxena, A., Sun, M., and Ng, A. Y. 2009. Make3d: Learning 3d scene structure from a single still image. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 31, 5, 824–840. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Schaefer, S., McPhail, T., and Warren, J. 2006. Image deformation using moving least squares. ACM Trans. on Graph. 25, 3 (July), 533–540. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Schenk, O., and Gärtner, K. 2004. Solving unsymmetric sparse systems of linear equations with pardiso. Journal of Future Generation Computer Systems 20, 3, 475–487. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Stroebel, L. 1999. View Camera Technique, 7th ed. Focal Press.Google Scholar
    23. Wang, Y.-S., Tai, C.-L., Sorkine, O., and Lee, T.-Y. 2008. Optimized scale-and-stretch for image resizing. ACM Trans. on Graph. 27, 5 (Dec.), 118:1–118:8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    24. Willats, J. 1997. Art and Representation: New Principles in the Analysis of Pictures. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
    25. Wolf, L., Guttmann, M., and Cohen-Or, D. 2007. Non-homogeneous content-driven video-retargeting. In IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision.Google Scholar
    26. Wood, D. N., Finkelstein, A., Hughes, J. F., Thayer, C. E., and Salesin, D. H. 1997. Multiperspective panoramas for cel animation. In Proc. SIGGRAPH, 243–250. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Yu, J., and McMillan, L. 2004. General linear cameras. In European Conference on Computer Vision.Google ScholarCross Ref
    28. Zelnik-Manor, L., and Perona, P. 2007. Automating joiners. In NPAR ’07: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering, 121–131. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Zorin, D., and Barr, A. H. 1995. Correction of geometric perceptual distortion in pictures. In Proc. SIGGRAPH, 257–264. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: