“Exposing Photo Manipulation From Shading and Shadows” by Kee, O’Brien and Farid

  • ©Eric Kee, James F. O'Brien, and Hany Farid

Conference:


Type:


Title:

    Exposing Photo Manipulation From Shading and Shadows

Session/Category Title:   Shady Images


Presenter(s)/Author(s):


Moderator(s):



Abstract:


    We describe a method for detecting physical inconsistencies in lighting from the shading and shadows in an image. This method imposes a multitude of shading- and shadow-based constraints on the projected location of a distant point light source. The consistency of a collection of such constraints is posed as a linear programming problem. A feasible solution indicates that the combination of shading and shadows is physically consistent, while a failure to find a solution provides evidence of photo tampering.

References:


    1. P. Beckmann. 1987. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces. Artech House, New York.
    2. M. Chen, J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, and J. Lukas. 2008. Determining image origin and integrity using sensor noise. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 3, 1, 74–90.
    3. H. Farid. 2009. A survey of image forgery detection. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 2, 26, 16–25.
    4. H. Farid and M. J. Bravo. 2010. Image forensic analyses that elude the human visual system. In Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Media Forensics Security II. Vol. 7541.
    5. J. Fridrich. 2009. Digital image forensic using sensor noise. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 26, 2, 26–37.
    6. J. Fridrich, D. Soukal, and J. Lukas. 2003. Detection of copy move forgery in digital images. In Proceedings of the Digital Forensic Research Workshop (DFRWS’03).
    7. K. Hara, K. Nishino, and K. Ikeuchi. 2005. Light source position and reflectance estimation from a single view without the distant illumination assumption. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27, 4, 493–505.
    8. D. Hougen and N. Ahuja. 1993. Estimation of the light source distribution and its use in integrated shape recovery from stereo and shading. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Vision. 148–155.
    9. P. Irawan. 2008. Appearance of woven cloth. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
    10. J. Jacobson and S. Werner. 2004. Why cast shadows are expendable: Insensitivity of human observers and the inherent ambiguity of cast shadows in pictorial art. Percept. 33, 11, 1369–1383.
    11. W. Jakob. 2010. Mitsuba renderer. http://www.mitsuba-renderer.org.
    12. M. Johnson and H. Farid. 2007. Exposing digital forgeries in complex lighting environments. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 3, 2, 450–461.
    13. M. K. Johnson and H. Farid. 2005. Exposing digital forgeries by detecting inconsistencies in lighting. In Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Multimedia and Security (MM&Sec’05). ACM Press, New York, 1–10.
    14. M. K. Johnson and H. Farid. 2006. Exposing digital forgeries through chromatic aberration. In Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Multimedia and Security (MM&Sec’06). ACM Press, New York, 48–55.
    15. M. K. Johnson, D. G. Stork, S. Biswas, and Y. Furuichi. 2008. Inferring illumination direction estimated from disparate sources in paintings: An investigation into Jan Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl Earring. In Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Computer Image Analysis in the Study of Art. Vol. 6810.
    16. K. Karsch, V. Hedau, D. Forsyth, and D. Hoiem. 2011. Rendering synthetic objects into legacy photographs. In Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH Asia Conference. 157:1–157:12.
    17. E. Kee and H. Farid. 2010. Exposing digital forgeries from 3-D lighting environments. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS’10). 1–6.
    18. E. Kee, M. K. Johnson, and H. Farid. 2011. Digital image authentication from jpeg headers. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 6, 3, 1066–1075.
    19. E. Kee, J. O’brien, and H. Farid. 2013. Exposing photo manipulation with inconsistent shadows. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 3, 28:1–28:12.
    20. C.-Y. Kim, A. P. Petrov, H.-K. Choh, Y.-S. Seo, and I.-S. Kweon. 1998. Illuminant direction and shape of a bump. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 9, 2341–2350.
    21. M. Kirchner. 2010. Efficient estimation of CFA pattern configuration in digital camera images. In Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Media Forensics Security II. Vol. 7541.
    22. Y. Li, S. Lin, H. Lu, and H.-Y. Shum. 2003. Multiple-cue illumination estimation in textured scenes. In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision. Vol. 2. 1366–1373.
    23. Z. Lin, R. Wang, X. Tang, and H.-Y. Shum. 2005. Detecting doctored images using camera response normality and consistency. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Vol. 1. 1087–1092.
    24. Q. Liu, X. Cao, C. Deng, and X. Guo. 2011. Identifying image composites through shadow matte consistency. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 6, 3, 1111–1122.
    25. B. Mahdian and S. Saic. 2009. Detecting double compressed jpeg images. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Crime Detection and Prevention (ICDP’09). 1–6.
    26. S. R. Marschner and D. P. Greenberg. 1997. Inverse lighting for photography. In Proceedings of the 5th IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference. 262–265.
    27. P. Nillius and J.-O. Eklundh. 2001. Automatic estimation of the projected light source direction. In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.
    28. J. F. O’brien and H. Farid. 2012. Exposing photo manipulation with inconsistent reflections. ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 1, 4:1–11.
    29. M. Oren and S. Nayar. 1994. Generalization of lambert’s reflectance model. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH’94). 239–246.
    30. Y. Ostrovsky, P. Cavanagh, and P. Sinha. 2005. Perceiving illumination inconsistencies in scenes. Percept. 34, 1301–1314.
    31. A. Popescu and H. Farid. 2005a. Statistical tools for digital forensics. In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Information Hiding, J. Fridrich, Ed., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3200. Springer, 128–147.
    32. A. C. Popescu and H. Farid. 2005b. Exposing digital forgeries in color filter array interpolated images. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 53, 10, 3948–3959.
    33. A. Preetham, P. Shirley, and B. Smits. 1999. A practical analytic model for daylight. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley, 91–100.
    34. C. Riess and E. Angelopoulou. 2010. Scene illumination as an indicator of image manipulation. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Hiding, R. Bohme, P. W. Fong, and R. Safavi-Naini, Eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6387. Springer, 66–80.
    35. A. Rocha, W. Scheirer, T. E. Boult, and S. Goldenstein. 2011. Vision of the unseen: Current trends and challenges in digital image and video forensics. ACM Comput. Surv. 43, 4, 26:1–26:42.
    36. D. Stork and M. Johnson. 2006a. Computer vision, image analysis, and master art: Part 2. IEEE MultiMedia 13, 4, 12–17.
    37. D. Stork and M. Johnson. 2006b. Estimating the location of illuminants in realist master paintings computer image analysis addresses a debate in art history of the baroque. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR’06). Vol. 1. 255–258.
    38. Y. Wang and D. Samaras. 2003. Estimation of multiple directional light sources for synthesis of augmented reality images. Graph. Models 65, 4, 185–205.
    39. W. Zhang, X. Cao, J. Zhang, J. Zhu, and P. Wang. 2009. Detecting photographic composites using shadows. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo. 1042–1045.
    40. Y. Zhang and Y.-H. Yang. 2001. Multiple illuminant direction detection with application to image synthesis. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 8, 915–920.
    41. Q. Zheng and R. Chellappa. 1991. Estimation of illuminant direction, albedo, and shape from shading. In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR’91). 540–545.
    42. W. Zhou and C. Kambhamettu. 2008. A unified framework for scene illuminant estimation. Image Vis. Comput. 26, 3, 415–429.

ACM Digital Library Publication:



Overview Page: