“Example-based wrinkle synthesis for clothing animation” by Wang, Hecht, Ramamoorthi and O’Brien

  • ©Huamin Wang, Florian Hecht, Ravi Ramamoorthi, and James F. O'Brien




    Example-based wrinkle synthesis for clothing animation



    This paper describes a method for animating the appearance of clothing, such as pants or a shirt, that fits closely to a figure’s body. Compared to flowing cloth, such as loose dresses or capes, these types of garments involve nearly continuous collision contact and small wrinkles, that can be troublesome for traditional cloth simulation methods. Based on the observation that the wrinkles in close-fitting clothing behave in a predominantly kinematic fashion, we have developed an example-based wrinkle synthesis technique. Our method drives wrinkle generation from the pose of the figure’s kinematic skeleton. This approach allows high quality clothing wrinkles to be combined with a coarse cloth simulation that computes the global and dynamic aspects of the clothing motion. While the combined results do not exactly match a high-resolution reference simulation, they do capture many of the characteristic fine-scale features and wrinkles. Further, the combined system runs at interactive rates, making it suitable for applications where high-resolution offline simulations would not be a viable option. The wrinkle synthesis method uses a precomputed database built by simulating the high-resolution clothing as the articulated figure is moved over a range of poses. In principle, the space of poses is exponential in the total number of degrees of freedom; however clothing wrinkles are primarily affected by the nearest joints, allowing each joint to be processed independently. During synthesis, mesh interpolation is used to consider the influence of multiple joints, and combined with a coarse simulation to produce the final results at interactive rates.


    1. Allen, B., Curless, B., and Popovic, Z. 2002. Articulated body deformation from range scan data. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002, vol. 21, 612–619. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Baraff, D., and Witkin, A. 1998. Large steps in cloth simulation. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 1998, 43–54. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Baran, I., Vlasic, D., Grinspun, E., and Popović, J. 2009. Semantic deformation transfer. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2009, vol. 28, 1–6. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Bordes, J. P., Maher, M., and Sechrest, M. 2009. Nvidia apex: High definition physics with clothing and vegetation. In Game Developers Conference.Google Scholar
    5. Bridson, R., Fedkiw, R., and Anderson, J. 2002. Robust treatment of collisions, contact and friction for cloth animation. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002, vol. 21, 594–603. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Bridson, R., Marino, S., and Fedkiw, R. 2003. Simulation of clothing with folds and wrinkles. In Proc. of SCA 2003, 28–36. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Capell, S., Green, S., Curless, B., Duchamp, T., and Popović, Z. 2002. Interactive skeleton-driven dynamic deformations. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002, vol. 21, 586–593. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Choi, K.-J., and Ko, H.-S. 2002. Stable but responsive cloth. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2002, vol. 21, 604–611. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Choi, K., and Ko, H. 2005. Research problems in clothing simulation. Computer Aided Design 37, 585–592. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Cordier, F., and Magnenat-Thalmann, N. 2005. A data-driven approach for real-time clothes simulation. Comput. Graph. Forum 24, 2, 173–183.Google ScholarCross Ref
    11. Cutler, L. D., Gershbein, R., Wang, X. C., Curtis, C., Maigret, E., Prasso, L., and Farson, P. 2007. An art-directed wrinkle system for CG character clothing and skin. Graphical Models 69, 5–6, 219–230. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Decaudin, P., Julius, D., Wither, J., Boissieux, L., Sheffer, A., and Cani, M.-P. 2006. Virtual garments: A fully geometric approach for clothing design. In Proc. of Eurographics 2006, vol. 25, 625–634.Google Scholar
    13. Eibner, G., Fuhrmann, A. L., and Purgathofer, W. 2009. Generating predictable and convincing folds for leather seat design. In Proc. of Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, 93–96. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. English, E., and Bridson, R. 2008. Animating developable surfaces using nonconforming elements. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2008, vol. 27, 1–5. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Goldenthal, R., Harmon, D., Fattal, R., Bercovier, M., and Grinspun, E. 2007. Efficient Simulation of Inextensible Cloth. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007, vol. 26, 49. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Hadap, S., Bangerter, E., Volino, P., and Magnenat-Thalmann, N. 1999. Animating wrinkles on clothes. In Proc. of the 10th IEEE Visualization 1999 Conference, IEEE Computer Society. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. House, D., and Breen, D. 2000. Cloth Modeling and Animation. AK Peters. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Jakobsen, T. 2001. Advanced character physics. In Game Developers Conference.Google Scholar
    19. James, D. L., and Fatahalian, K. 2003. Precomputing interactive dynamic deformable scenes. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2003, vol. 22, 879–887. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. James, D. L., Twigg, C. D., Cove, A., and Wang, R. Y. 2007. Mesh ensemble motion graphs: Data-driven mesh animation with constraints. ACM Trans. Graph. 26, 4, 17. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Kaldor, J. M., James, D. L., and Marschner, S. 2008. Simulating knitted cloth at the yarn level. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2008, 1–9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Kang, Y.-M., Choi, J.-H., Cho, H.-G., and Lee, D.-H. 2001. An efficient animation of wrinkled cloth with approximate implicit integration. The Visual Computer 17, 3, 147–157.Google ScholarCross Ref
    23. Kavan, L., Sloan, P.-P., and O’Sullivan, C. 2010. Fast and efficient skinning of animated meshes. Comput. Graph. Forum 29, 2.Google ScholarCross Ref
    24. Kim, T.-Y., and Vendrovsky, E. 2008. Drivenshape: a data-driven approach for shape deformation. In Proc. of SCA 2008, 49–55. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Kry, P. G., James, D. L., and Pai, D. K. 2002. Eigenskin: Real time large deformation character skinning in hardware. In Proc. of SCA 2002, 153–159. Google ScholarDigital Library
    26. Larboulette, C., and Cani, M.-P. 2004. Real-time dynamic wrinkles. In Proc. of Computer Graphics International, 522–525. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Lee, M. 2006. Seven ways to skin a mesh: Character skinning revisited for modern GPUs. In Proc. of GameFest, Microsoft Game Technology Conference.Google Scholar
    28. Lewis, J. P., Cordner, M., and Fong, N. 2000. Pose space deformation: a unified approach to shape interpolation and skeleton-driven deformation. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000, 165–172. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Müller, M. 2008. Hierarchical position based dynamics. In Proc. of Virtual Reality Interactions and Physical Simulations.Google Scholar
    30. Meggs, A. 2005. Parachute pants and denim dresses: Taking real-time cloth beyond curtain. In Game Developers Conference.Google Scholar
    31. Mohr, A., and Gleicher, M. 2003. Building efficient, accurate character skins from examples. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2003, vol. 22, 562–568. Google ScholarDigital Library
    32. Nealen, A., Mueller, M., Keiser, R., Boxerman, E., and Carlson, M. 2006. Physically based deformable models in computer graphics. Computer Graphics Forum 25, 4, 809–836.Google ScholarCross Ref
    33. Park, S. I., and Hodgins, J. K. 2008. Data-driven modeling of skin and muscle deformation. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2008, vol. 27, 1–6. Google ScholarDigital Library
    34. Popa, T., Zhou, Q., Bradley, D., Kraevoy, V., Fu, H., Sheffer, A., and Heidrich, W. 2009. Wrinkling captured garments using space-time data-driven deformation. In Proc. of Eurographics 2009, vol. 28.Google Scholar
    35. Provot, X. 1995. Deformation constraints in a mass-spring model to describe rigid cloth behavior. In Graphics Interface ’95, 147–154.Google Scholar
    36. Selle, A., Su, J., Irving, G., and Fedkiw, R. 2009. Robust high-resolution cloth using parallelism, history-based collisions, and accurate friction. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 15, 2, 339–350. Google ScholarDigital Library
    37. Shi, X., Zhou, K., Tong, Y., Desbrun, M., Bao, H., and Guo, B. 2008. Example-based dynamic skinning in real time. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2008, vol. 27, 1–8. Google ScholarDigital Library
    38. Sumner, R. W., and Popović, J. 2004. Deformation transfer for triangle meshes. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004, 399–405. Google ScholarDigital Library
    39. Thomaszewski, B., Pabst, S., and Strasser, W. 2009. Continuum-based strain limiting. In Proc. of Eurographics 2009, vol. 28, 569–576.Google Scholar
    40. Vasilakis, A., and Fudos, I. 2009. Skeleton-based rigid skinning for character animation. In Proc. of the Fourth International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, 302–308.Google Scholar
    41. Volino, P., Magnenat-Thalmann, N., and Faure, F. 2009. A simple approach to nonlinear tensile stiffness for accurate cloth simulation. ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 4, 1–16. Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. Wang, X. C., and Phillips, C. 2002. Multi-weight enveloping: least-squares approximation techniques for skin animation. In Proc. of SCA 2002, 129–138. Google ScholarDigital Library
    43. Weber, O., Sorkine, O., Lipman, Y., and Gotsman, C. 2007. Context-aware skeletal shape deformation. In Proc. of Eurographics 2007, vol. 26.Google Scholar
    44. White, R., Crane, K., and Forsyth, D. A. 2007. Data driven cloth animation. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 sketches, 37. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: