“Dynamic real-time deformations using space & time adaptive sampling” by Debunne, Desbrun, Cani and Barr

  • ©Gilles Debunne, Mathieu Desbrun, Marie-Paule Cani, and Alan H. Barr




    Dynamic real-time deformations using space & time adaptive sampling



    This paper presents a robust, adaptive method for animating dynamic visco-elastic deformable objects that provides a guaranteed frame rate. Our approach uses a novel automatic space and time adaptive level of detail technique, in combination with a large-displacement (Green) strain tensor formulation. The body is partitioned in a non-nested multiresolution hierarchy of tetrahedral meshes. The local resolution is determined by a quality condition that indicates where and when the resolution is too coarse. As the object moves and deforms, the sampling is refined to concentrate the computational load into the regions that deform the most. Our model consists of a continuous differential equation that is solved using a local explicit finite element method. We demonstrate that our adaptive Green strain tensor formulation suppresses unwanted artifacts in the dynamic behavior, compared to adaptive mass-spring and other adaptive approaches. In particular, damped elastic vibration modes are shown to be nearly unchanged for several levels of refinement. Results are presented in the context of a virtual reality system. The user interacts in real-time with the dynamic object through the control of a rigid tool, attached to a haptic device driven with forces derived from the method.


    1. D. Baraff and A. Witkin. Large steps in cloth simulation. In SIGGRAPH’98 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 43-54. ACM SIGGRAPH, Addison Wesley, July 1998.
    2. R. Berka. Reduction of computations in physics-based animation using level of detail. In Proceedings of the 1997 Spring Conference on Computer Graphics, pages 69-76, 1997.
    3. M. Bro-Nielsen and S. Cotin. Real-time volumetric deformable models for surgery simulation using finite elements and condensation. In Eurographics, pages 21-30, 1996.
    4. D. Carlson and J. Hodgins. Simulation levels of detail for real-time animation. In Proceedings of Graphic Interface, pages 1-8, 1997.
    5. S. Chenney and D. Forsyth. View-dependent culling of dynamics systems in virtual environments. In Proceedings of the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pages 55-58, 1997.
    6. S. Cotin, H. Delingette, and N. Ayache. Real-time elastic deformations of soft tissues for surgery simulation. IEEE Transactions On Visualization and Computer Graphics, 5(1):62-73, Jan-Mar 1999.
    7. G. Debunne, M. Desbrun, A. Barr, and M.-P. Cani. Interactive multiresolution animation of deformable models. In 10th Eurographics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, Milano, 1999.
    8. G. Debunne, M. Desbrun, M.-P. Cani, and A. Barr. Adaptive simulation of soft bodies in real-time. In Computer Animation 2000, Philadelphia, USA, May 2000.
    9. H. Delingette, S. Cotin, and N. Ayache. A hybrid elastic model allowing real-time cutting, deformations and force-feedback for surgery training and simulation. Computer Animation, May 26-28 1999.
    10. M. Desbrun, M. Meyer, P. Schroder, and A. Barr. Discrete differentialgeometry operators in 2d and 3d. http://www-grail.usc.edu/pubs/. Submitted, 2000.
    11. M. Desbrun, P. Schroder, and A. Barr. Interactive animation of structured deformable objects. In I. Scott MacKenzie and James Stewart, editors, Graphics Interface ’99, June 1999.
    12. Y.C. Fung. Foundations of Solids Mechanics. Prentice-Hall, 1965.
    13. F. Ganovelli, P. Cignoni, C. Montani, and R. Scopigno. A multiresolution model for soft objects supporting interactive cuts and lacerations. In Proceedings of Eurographics, 2000.
    14. Michael Garland and Paul S. Heckbert. Surface simplification using quadric error metrics. In Turner Whitted, editor, SIGGRAPH’97 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pages 209-216. Addison Wesley, August 1997.
    15. J.-D. Gascuel, M.-P. Cani, M. Desbrun, E. Leroi, and C. Mirgon. Simulating landslides for natural disaster prevention. In Proceedings of the 8th Eurographics Workshop on Animation and Simulation, 1998.
    16. A. Van Gelder. Approximate simulation of elastic membranes by triangulated spring meshes. Jour. of Graphics Tools, 3(2):21-42, 1998.
    17. S. F. Gibson and B. Mirtich. A survey of deformable modeling in computer graphics. Technical report, MERL, November 1997. TR-97- 19, http://www.merl.com.
    18. J.-P. Gourret, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, and D. Thalmann. Simulation of object and human skin deformation in a grasping task. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’89 (Boston, MA), pages 21-30, July 1989.
    19. D. Hutchinson, M. Preston, and T. Hewitt. Adaptative refinement for mass/spring simulations. In Proc. of the Eurographics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, pages 31-45, Poitiers, sep 1996.
    20. D. James and D. Pai. Art defo – accurate real time deformable objects. In Proc. of SIGGRAPH, Computer Graphics Proceedings, SIG- GRAPH, pages 65-72. ACM SIGGRAPH, ACM Press, August 1999.
    21. J.-C. Lombardo, M.-P. Cani, and F. Neyret. Real-time collision detection for virtual surgery. In Proc. of Computer Animation, May 1999.
    22. J. O’Brien and J. Hodgins. Graphical models and animation of brittle fracture. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’99, pages 137-146, 1999.
    23. A. Pentland and J. Williams. Good vibrations: modal dynamics for graphics and animation. Proc. SIGGRAPH, 23(3):215-222, July 1989.
    24. B. Smith, P. Bjrstad, and W. Gropp. Domain Decomposition : Parallel Multilevel Methods for Elliptic Partial Differential Equations.Cam-bridge Univ Pr, May 1996.
    25. D. Terzopoulos, J. Platt, A. Barr, and K. Fleischer. Elastically deformable models. Proc. of SIGGRAPH, 21:205-214, July 1987.
    26. A. Witkin and W. Welch. Fast animation and control for non-rigid structures. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH, 24(4):243-252, August 1990.
    27. Yan Zhuang and John Canny. Real-time and physically realistic global deformation. In SIGGRAPH’99 Sketches and Apllication Proceedings, aug 1999.

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: