“Depicting stylized materials with vector shade trees” by Lopez-Moreno, Popov, Bousseau, Agrawala and Drettakis

  • ©Jorge Lopez-Moreno, Stefan Popov, Adrien Bousseau, Maneesh Agrawala, and George Drettakis




    Depicting stylized materials with vector shade trees

Session/Category Title: Artistic Rendering & Stylization




    Vector graphics represent images with compact, editable and scalable primitives. Skillful vector artists employ these primitives to produce vivid depictions of material appearance and lighting. However, such stylized imagery often requires building complex multi-layered combinations of colored fills and gradient meshes. We facilitate this task by introducing vector shade trees that bring to vector graphics the flexibility of modular shading representations as known in the 3D rendering community. In contrast to traditional shade trees that combine pixel and vertex shaders, our shade nodes encapsulate the creation and blending of vector primitives that vector artists routinely use. We propose a set of basic shade nodes that we design to respect the traditional guidelines on material depiction described in drawing books and tutorials. We integrate our representation as an Adobe Illustrator plug-in that allows even inexperienced users to take a line drawing, apply a few clicks and obtain a fully colored illustration. More experienced artists can easily refine the illustration, adding more details and visual features, while using all the vector drawing tools they are already familiar with. We demonstrate the power of our representation by quickly generating illustrations of complex objects and materials.


    1. Anjyo, K., and Hiramitsu, K. 2003. Stylized highlights for cartoon rendering and animation. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 23, 4 (July), 54–61. Google ScholarDigital Library
    2. Barla, P., Thollot, J., and Markosian, L. 2006. X-toon: an extended toon shader. In Proc. Symp. on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR), ACM, New York, NY, USA. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Bezerra, H., Eisemann, E., DeCarlo, D., and Thollot, J. 2010. Diffusion constraints for vector graphics. In Proc. Symp. on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR). Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Bousseau, A., Chapoulie, E., Ramamoorthi, R., and Agrawala, M. 2011. Optimizing environment maps for material depiction. Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. of EGSR) 30, 4 (07). Google ScholarDigital Library
    5. Boyé, S., Barla, P., and Guennebaud, G. 2012. A vectorial solver for free-form vector gradients. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH Asia) 31, 6 (Nov.), 173:1–173:9. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Cook, R. L. 1984. Shade trees. SIGGRAPH ’84 18, 3, 223–231. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Curtis, C. J., Anderson, S. E., Seims, J. E., Fleischer, K. W., and Salesin, D. H. 1997. Computer-generated watercolor. SIGGRAPH ’97, 421–430. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Doyle, M. 2006. Color Drawing: Design Drawing Skills and Techniques for Architects, Landscape Architects, and Interior Designers. Wiley.Google Scholar
    9. Eisemann, E., Winnemöller, H., Hart, J. C., and Salesin, D. 2008. Stylized vector art from 3d models with region support. Computer Graphics Forum (Proc. of EGSR) 27, 4 (June). Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Eissen, K., and Steur, R. 2008. Sketching (5th Printing): Drawing Techniques for Product Designers. Art and Design Series. Bis.Google Scholar
    11. Eissen, K., and Steur, R. 2011. Sketching: The Basics. Bis.Google Scholar
    12. Finch, M., Snyder, J., and Hoppe, H. 2011. Freeform vector graphics with controlled thin-plate splines. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH Asia) 30, 6 (Dec.). Google ScholarDigital Library
    13. Gooch, A., Gooch, B., Shirley, P., and Cohen, E. 1998. A non-photorealistic lighting model for automatic technical illustration. SIGGRAPH ’98, 447–452. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Grabli, S., Turquin, E., Durand, F., and Sillion, F. X. 2010. Programmable rendering of line drawing from 3d scenes. ACM Transactions on Graphics 29, 2, 18:1–18:20. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Hertzmann, A. 1998. Painterly rendering with curved brush strokes of multiple sizes. SIGGRAPH ’98, 453–460. Google ScholarDigital Library
    16. Johnston, S. F. 2002. Lumo: illumination for cel animation. In Proc. Symp. on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Kim, Y., Yu, J., Yu, X., and Lee, S. 2008. Line-art illustration of dynamic and specular surfaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH Asia) 27, 5 (Dec.). Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Lai, Y.-K., Hu, S.-M., and Martin, R. R. 2009. Automatic and topology-preserving gradient mesh generation for image vectorization. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH). Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Liao, Z., Hoppe, H., Forsyth, D., and Yu, Y. 2012. A subdivision-based representation for vector image editing. IEEE Trans. on Visualization and Computer Graphics 18, 11. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Martin, J. 1989. Rendering Highlights. Airbrush Artist’s Library. North Light Books.Google Scholar
    21. Martin, J. 1989. Rendering Metals. Airbrush Artist’s Library. North Light Books.Google Scholar
    22. Martin, J. 1989. Rendering Transparency. Airbrush Artist’s Library. North Light Books.Google Scholar
    23. McGarry, R., and Madsen, G. 1992. Marker Magic: The Rendering Problem Solver for Designers. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
    24. Orzan, A., Bousseau, A., Winnemöller, H., Barla, P., Thollot, J., and Salesin, D. 2008. Diffusion curves: A vector representation for smooth-shaded images. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 27. Google ScholarDigital Library
    25. Powell, D. 1986. Design rendering techniques: a guide to drawing and presenting design ideas. North Light.Google Scholar
    26. Robertson, S. 2003. How to Draw Cars the Hot Wheels Way. MBI.Google Scholar
    27. Sloan, P.-P. J., Martin, W., Gooch, A., and Gooch, B. 2001. The lit sphere: a model for capturing npr shading from art. In Graphics Interface, Canadian Information Processing Society, Toronto, Ont., Canada, Canada, 143–150. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Sun, J., Liang, L., Wen, F., and Shum, H.-Y. 2007. Image vectorization using optimized gradient meshes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH) 26, 3 (July). Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Winkenbach, G., and Salesin, D. H. 1994. Computer-generated pen-and-ink illustration. SIGGRAPH ’94, 91–100. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: