“Color contoning for 3D printing”

  • ©Vahid Babaei, Kiril Vidimče, Michael Foshey, Alexandre Kaspar, Piotr Didyk, and Wojciech Matusik




    Color contoning for 3D printing

Session/Category Title: Fabricating Look & Feel




    Appearance reproduction is an important aspect of 3D printing. Current color reproduction systems use halftoning methods that create colors through a spatial combination of different inks at the object’s surface. This introduces a variety of artifacts to the object, especially when viewed from a closer distance. In this work, we propose an alternative color reproduction method for 3D printing. Inspired by the inherent ability of 3D printers to layer different materials on top of each other, 3D color contoning creates colors by combining inks with various thicknesses inside the object’s volume. Since inks are inside the volume, our technique results in a uniform color surface with virtually invisible spatial patterns on the surface. For color prediction, we introduce a simple and highly accurate spectral model that relies on a weighted regression of spectral absorptions. We fully characterize the proposed framework by addressing a number of problems, such as material arrangement, calculation of ink concentration, and 3D dot gain. We use a custom 3D printer to fabricate and validate our results.


    1. Eugene Allen. 1966. Basic equations used in computer color matching. JOSA 56, 9 (1966), 1256–1257. Google ScholarCross Ref
    2. Eugene Allen. 1974. Basic equations used in computer color matching, II. Tristimulus match, two-constant theory. JOSA 64, 7 (1974), 991–993. Google ScholarCross Ref
    3. Isaac Amidror. 2009. The Theory of the Moiré Phenomenon, Volume I: Periodic Layers (2nd ed.). Springer.Google Scholar
    4. Vahid Babaei and Roger D Hersch. 2016. N-Ink printer characterization with barycentric subdivision. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 25, 7 (2016), 3023–3031. Google ScholarCross Ref
    5. Vahid Babaei, Romain Rossier, and Roger D Hersch. 2012. Reducing the number of calibration patterns for the two-by-two dot centering model. In IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 829208–829208.Google Scholar
    6. Farhan Baqai, Je-Ho Lee, Jan P Allebach, and others. 2005. Digital color halftoning. Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE 22, 1 (2005), 87–96. Google ScholarCross Ref
    7. Fausto Bernardini, Joshua Mittleman, Holly Rushmeier, Cláudio Silva, and Gabriel Taubin. 1999. The ball-pivoting algorithm for surface reconstruction. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on 5, 4 (1999), 349–359.Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Roy S Berns. 1993. Spectral modeling of a dye diffusion thermal transfer printer. Journal of Electronic Imaging 2, 4 (1993), 359–370. Google ScholarCross Ref
    9. Roy S Berns. 1997. A generic approach to color modeling. Color Research & Application 22, 5 (1997), 318–325. Google ScholarCross Ref
    10. Alan Brunton, Can Ates Arikan, and Philipp Urban. 2015. Pushing the limits of 3d color printing: Error diffusion with translucent materials. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 35, 1 (2015), 4.Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. S Chandrasekhar. 1960. Radiative Transfer. Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
    12. Denis Defibaugh. 1997. The Collotype: History, process & photographic documentation. Rochester Institute of Technology (1997).Google Scholar
    13. Yue Dong, Jiaping Wang, Fabio Pellacini, Xin Tong, and Baining Guo. 2010. Fabricating Spatially-varying Subsurface Scattering. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 4 (July 2010), 62:1–62:10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Robert C. Durbeck. 2012. Output Hardcopy Devices. Academic Press.Google Scholar
    15. Mady Elias and Lionel Simonot. 2006. Separation between the different fluxes scattered by art glazes: explanation of the special color saturation. Applied optics 45, 13 (2006), 3163–3172. Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. Miloš Hašan, Martin Fuchs, Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, and Szymon Rusinkiewicz. 2010. Physical Reproduction of Materials with Specified Subsurface Scattering. ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 4 (July 2010), 61:1–61:10.Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Mathieu Hébert and Roger D Hersch. 2015. Review of spectral reflectance models for halftone prints: principles, calibration, and prediction accuracy. Color Research & Application 40, 4 (2015), 383–397. Google ScholarCross Ref
    18. Mathieu Hébert, Roger D Hersch, and Lionel Simonot. 2008. Spectral prediction model for piles of nonscattering sheets. JOSA A 25, 8 (2008), 2066–2077. Google ScholarCross Ref
    19. Roger David Hersch and Frédérique Crété. 2005. Improving the Yule-Nielsen modified Neugebauer model by dot surface coverages depending on the ink superposition conditions. In Electronic Imaging 2005. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 434–447. Google ScholarCross Ref
    20. Matthias B. Hullin, Ivo Ihrke, Wolfgang Heidrich, Tim Weyrich, Gerwin Damberg, and Martin Fuchs. 2013. Computational Fabrication and Display of Material Appearance. In Eurographics 2013 – State of the Art Reports, M. Sbert and L. Szirmay-Kalos (Eds.). The Eurographics Association. Google ScholarCross Ref
    21. Isaac Kauvar, Samuel J Yang, Liang Shi, Ian McDowall, and Gordon Wetzstein. 2015. Adaptive color display via perceptually-driven factored spectral projection. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 34, 6 (2015), 165.Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Amol A Khalate, Xavier Bombois, Gérard Scorletti, Robert Babuska, Sjirk Koekebakker, and Wim De Zeeuw. 2012. A waveform design method for a piezo inkjet printhead based on robust feedforward control. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 21, 6 (2012), 1365–1374. Google ScholarCross Ref
    23. P. Kubelka and F. Munk. 1931. Ein Beitrag zur Optik der Farbanstriche. Zeitschrift für technische Physik 12 (1931), 593–601.Google Scholar
    24. Leon B Lucy. 1974. An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions. The astronomical journal 79 (1974), 745. Google ScholarCross Ref
    25. Ján Morovic and M Ronnier Luo. 2001. The fundamentals of gamut mapping: A survey. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology 45, 3 (2001), 283–290.Google Scholar
    26. PS Mudgett and LW Richards. 1971. Multiple scattering calculations for technology. Applied Optics 10, 7 (1971), 1485–1502. Google ScholarCross Ref
    27. Victor Ostromoukhov. 2001. A simple and efficient error-diffusion algorithm. In Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. ACM, 567–572. Google ScholarDigital Library
    28. Wai-Man Pang, Yingge Qu, Tien-Tsin Wong, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Pheng-Ann Heng. 2008. Structure-aware halftoning. In ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), Vol. 27. ACM, 89. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. Marios Papas, Christian Regg, Wojciech Jarosz, Bernd Bickel, Philip Jackson, Wojciech Matusik, Steve Marschner, and Markus Gross. 2013. Fabricating Translucent Materials Using Continuous Pigment Mixtures. ACM Trans. Graph. 32, 4 (July 2013), 146:1–146:12.Google ScholarDigital Library
    30. Petar Pjanic and Roger D Hersch. 2015. Color imaging and pattern hiding on a metallic substrate. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 34, 4 (2015), 130.Google ScholarDigital Library
    31. Tim Reiner, Nathan Carr, Radomír Měch, Ondřej Št’ava, Carsten Dachsbacher, and Gavin Miller. 2014. Dual-color mixing for fused deposition modeling printers. In Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 33. Wiley Online Library, 479–486. Google ScholarDigital Library
    32. William Hadley Richardson. 1972. Bayesian-based iterative method of image restoration. JOSA 62, 1 (1972), 55–59. Google ScholarCross Ref
    33. Kenneth H Rosen and Kamala Krithivasan. 2007. Discrete Mathematics and its Applications (6 ed.). McGraw-Hill New York. 370–382 pages.Google Scholar
    34. Romain Rossier. 2013. Framework for Printing with Daylight Fluorescent Inks. Ph.D. Dissertation. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne.Google Scholar
    35. JL Saunderson. 1942. Calculation of the color of pigmented plastics. JOSA 32, 12 (1942), 727–729. Google ScholarCross Ref
    36. János Schanda. 2007. Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System. John Wiley & Sons. Google ScholarCross Ref
    37. Christian Schüller, Daniele Panozzo, Anselm Grundhöfer, Henning Zimmer, Evgeni Sorkine, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung. 2016. Computational thermoforming. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 35, 4 (2016), 43.Google ScholarDigital Library
    38. Gaurav Sharma and Raja Bala. 2002. Digital Color Imaging Handbook. CRC press. Google ScholarCross Ref
    39. Gaurav Sharma, Wencheng Wu, and Edul N Dalal. 2005. The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: Implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations. Color research and application 30, 1 (2005), 21–30. Google ScholarCross Ref
    40. Lionel Simonot, Mathieu Hébert, and Roger D Hersch. 2006. Extension of the Williams-Clapper model to stacked nondiffusing colored coatings with different refractive indices. JOSA A 23, 6 (2006), 1432–1441. Google ScholarCross Ref
    41. Pitchaya Sitthi-Amorn, Javier E. Ramos, Yuwang Wangy, Joyce Kwan, Justin Lan, Wenshou Wang, and Wojciech Matusik. 2015. MultiFab: A Machine Vision Assisted Platform for Multi-material 3D Printing. ACM Trans. Graph. 34, 4, Article 129 (July 2015), 11 pages. Google ScholarDigital Library
    42. Stratasys. 2016. Stratasys J750 the ultimate full-color multi-material 3D printer. http://www.stratasys.com/3d-printers/production-series/stratasys-j750. (2016). [Online; accessed 15-October-2016].Google Scholar
    43. 3D Systems. 2013. ProJet 5500X Multi-Material 3D Printer. (2013). http://www.3dsystems.com/files/projet-5500x-1113-usen-web.pdfGoogle Scholar
    44. Gunter Wyszecki and Walter Stanley Stiles. 1982. Color Science. Vol. 8. Wiley New York.Google Scholar
    45. John AC Yule. 1967. Principles of color reproduction: applied to photomechanical reproduction, color photography, and the ink, paper, and other related industries. Wiley New York.Google Scholar
    46. Yizhong Zhang, Yiying Tong, and Kun Zhou. 2016. Coloring 3D Printed Surfaces by Thermoforming. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2016).Google Scholar
    47. Yizhong Zhang, Chunji Yin, Changxi Zheng, and Kun Zhou. 2015. Computational hydrographic printing. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 34, 4 (2015), 131.Google ScholarDigital Library
    48. Yonghui Zhao and Roy S Berns. 2009. Predicting the spectral reflectance factor of translucent paints using Kubelka-Munk turbid media theory: Review and evaluation. Color Research & Application 34, 6 (2009), 417–431. Google ScholarCross Ref

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: