“Animating developable surfaces using nonconforming elements” by English and Bridson

  • ©Elliot English and Robert Bridson




    Animating developable surfaces using nonconforming elements



    We present a new discretization for the physics-based animation of developable surfaces. Constrained to not deform at all in-plane but free to bend out-of-plane, these are an excellent approximation for many materials, including most cloth, paper, and stiffer materials. Unfortunately the conforming (geometrically continuous) discretizations used in graphics break down in this limit. Our nonconforming approach solves this problem, allowing us to simulate surfaces with zero in-plane deformation as a hard constraint. However, it produces discontinuous meshes, so we further couple this with a “ghost” conforming mesh for collision processing and rendering. We also propose a new second order accurate constrained mechanics time integration method that greatly reduces the numerical damping present in the usual first order methods used in graphics, for virtually no extra cost and sometimes significant speed-up.


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