“A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression” by Waters

  • ©Keith Waters




    A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression



    The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and a more general approach to the modelling of the primary facial expressions.A brief discussion of facial structure is given, from which a method for a simple modelling of a muscle process that is suitable for the animation of a number of divergent facial types is described.


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