“3D modeling with silhouettes” by Rivers, Igarashi and Durand

  • ©Alec Rivers, Takeo Igarashi, and Frédo Durand




    3D modeling with silhouettes



    We present a new sketch-based modeling approach in which models are interactively designed by drawing their 2D silhouettes from different views. The core idea of our paper is to limit the input to 2D silhouettes, removing the need to explicitly create or position 3D elements. Arbitrarily complex models can be constructed by assembling them out of parts defined by their silhouettes, which can be combined using CSG operations. We introduce a new simplified algorithm to compute CSG solids that leverages special properties of silhouette cylinders to convert the 3D CSG problem into one that can be handled entirely with 2D operations, making implementation simpler and more robust. We evaluate our approach by modeling a random sampling of man-made objects taken from the words in WordNet, and show that all of the tested man-made objects can be modeled quickly and easily using our approach.


    1. CATIA. 2009. Dassault Systemes.Google Scholar
    2. Chen, Z., and Perng, D.-B. 1988. Automatic reconstruction of 3D solid objects from 2D orthographic views. Pattern Recogn. 21, 439–449. Google ScholarDigital Library
    3. Dorsey, J., Xu, S., Smedresman, G., Rushmeier, H., and McMillan, L. 2007. The Mental Canvas: A Tool for Conceptual Architectural Design and Analysis. PG. Google ScholarDigital Library
    4. Franco, J.-S., and Boyer, E. 2003. Exact Polyhedral Visual Hulls. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth British Machine Vision Conference, 329–338.Google Scholar
    5. Gingold, Y., Igarashi, T., and Zorin, D. 2009. Structured annotations for 2D-to-3D modeling. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 28, 5, –18. Google ScholarDigital Library
    6. Igarashi, T., and Hughes, J. F. 2001. A suggestive interface for 3D drawing. Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. Google ScholarDigital Library
    7. Igarashi, T., Matsuoka, S., and Tanaka, H. 1999. Teddy: A Sketching Interface for 3D Freeform Design. International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. Google ScholarDigital Library
    8. Joshi, P., and Carr, N. 2008. Repousse: Automatic Inflation of 2D Artwork. Eurographics Workshop on Sketch-Based Modeling. Google ScholarDigital Library
    9. Judd, T., Durand, F., and Adelson, E. 2007. Apparent ridges for line drawing. In SIGGRAPH ’07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 papers, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 19. Google ScholarDigital Library
    10. Kara, L. B., and Shimada, K. 2007. Sketch-Based 3D-Shape Creation for Industrial Styling Design. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27, 60–71. Google ScholarDigital Library
    11. Karpenko, O. A., and Hughes, J. F. 2006. SmoothSketch: 3D free-form shapes from complex sketches. In SIGGRAPH ’06: ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Papers, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 589–598. Google ScholarDigital Library
    12. Karpenko, O., Hughes, J. F., and Raskar, R. 2002. Free-form sketching with variational implicit surfaces. Computer Graphics Forum 21, 585–594.Google ScholarCross Ref
    13. Laurentini, A. 1994. The Visual Hull Concept for Silhouette-Based Image Understanding. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16, 150–162. Google ScholarDigital Library
    14. Lazebnik, S., Furukawa, Y., and Ponce, J. 2007. Projective Visual Hulls. Int. J. Comput. Vision 74, 137–165. Google ScholarDigital Library
    15. Lipson, H., and Shpitalni, M. 1996. Optimization-based reconstruction of a 3D object from a single freehand line drawing. Journal of Computer Aided Design 28, 8, 651–663.Google ScholarCross Ref
    16. Masry, M., Kang, D., and Lipson, H. 2007. A freehand sketching interface for progressive construction of 3D objects. In SIGGRAPH ’07: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 courses, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 30. Google ScholarDigital Library
    17. Matusik, W., Buehler, C., Raskar, R., Gortler, S. J., and McMillan, L. 2000. Image-based visual hulls. In SIGGRAPH ’00: Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, NY, USA, 369–374. Google ScholarDigital Library
    18. Miller, G. A. 1995. WordNet: A Lexical Database for English. Communications of the ACM 38, 11, 39–41. Google ScholarDigital Library
    19. Mitra, N. J., and Pauly, M. 2009. Shadow art. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 28, 5. Google ScholarDigital Library
    20. Nealen, A., Sorkine, O., Alexa, M., and Cohen-Or, D. 2005. A sketch-based interface for detail-preserving mesh editing. ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 1142–1147. Google ScholarDigital Library
    21. Nealen, A., Igarashi, T., Sorkine, O., and Alexa, M. 2007. FiberMesh: designing freeform surfaces with 3D curves. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 26, 3. Google ScholarDigital Library
    22. Prasad, M., Zisserman, A., and Fitzgibbon, A. W. 2005. Fast and Controllable 3D Modelling from Silhouettes. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the European Association for Graphics (Eurographics), 9–12.Google Scholar
    23. Pro/ENGINEER. 2009. Parametri Technology Corporation.Google Scholar
    24. Requicha, A. A. G. 1977. Mathematical Models of Rigid Solid Objects. Production Automation Project.Google Scholar
    25. Rivers, A., Durand, F., and Igarashi, T. 2010. A User Study Comparing 3D Modeling with Silhouettes and Google SketchUp. MIT Technical Report.Google Scholar
    26. Sakurai, H., and Gossard, D. C. 1983. Solid model input through orthographic views. SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph. 17, 243–252. Google ScholarDigital Library
    27. Schmidt, R., Wyvill, B., Sousa, M. C., and Jorge, J. A., 2005. ShapeShop: Sketch-Based Solid Modeling with Blob-Trees.Google Scholar
    28. Sela, G., and Elber, G. 2007. Generation of view dependent models using free form deformation. The Visual Computer 23, 3 (January), 219–229. Google ScholarDigital Library
    29. SketchUp. 2009. Google.Google Scholar
    30. SolidWorks. 2009. Dassualt Systemes.Google Scholar
    31. Szeliski, R. 1993. Rapid octree construction from image sequences. CVGIP: Image Underst. 58, 23–32. Google ScholarDigital Library
    32. Tilove, R. B. 1980. Set Membership Classification: A Unified Approach to Geometric Intersection Problems. IEEE Transactions on Computers 29, 10. Google ScholarDigital Library
    33. Wang, W., and Grinstein, G. G. 1993. A Survey of 3D Solid Reconstruction from 2D Projection Line Drawings. Comput. Graph. Forum 12, 137–158.Google ScholarCross Ref
    34. Zeleznik, R. C., Herndon, K. P., and Hughes, J. F. 1996. SKETCH: An Interface for Sketching 3D Scenes. International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. Google ScholarDigital Library

ACM Digital Library Publication:

Overview Page: