“Animating expressivity through effort elements” by Chi, Badler and Pforsich

  • ©Diane M. Chi, Norman I. Badler, and Janis Pforsich



Interest Area:

    Production & Animation


    Animating expressivity through effort elements

Session/Category Title:   Behavior and Flight



    The EMOTE animation paradigm uses Laban’s Effort to parameterize expressive arm movements. Using only four textual parameters, it adds an intuitive interface to user-specified or procedurally generated character animation systems.


    1. D. Chi. A Motion Control Scheme for Animating Expressive Arm Movements, PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1999.
    2. I. Bartenieff and D. Lewis. Body Movement: Coping With the Environment, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, 1980.
    3. C. Dell. A Primer for Movement Description: Using Effort-Shape and Supplementary Concepts, Dance Notation Bureau, Inc., New York, 1970.
    4. C. L. Moore and K. Yamamoto. Beyond Words: Movement Observation and Analysis, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, 1988.

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